Gerlyver Kescows Second Edition


Until 30 November 2020

Publication of the second edition of Gerlyver Kescows is expected in 2021. A draft of the Cornish-English section appears below. This is still very much work-in-progress, and it will be updated from time to time during the consultation period.

If you are supportive of revived traditional Cornish and the Kernowek Standard spelling system, please let us know any comments you may have as the draft develops. Go to Contact Us.

Extracts from the Preface to the First Edition:

The Cornish in this dictionary takes William Jordan's Gwrians an Bÿs as its 'foundation text'. while looking forward to John Keigwin, William Rowe and Nicholas Boson, and back to John Tregear, Sacrament an AlterBêwnans Ke, and Bêwnans Meriasek. Spellings are those of 'Standard Cornish'.

The whole corpus of traditional Cornish has been used to enlarge the vocabulary. This has been a necessary principle of the revival from the outset.

The dictionary contains:

• 5000 Cornish entries in the main Cornish-English section

• a separate list of 'grammar words'

• an English-Cornish index of these words and phrases

• reference charts of essential verbs, numerals, and contact mutation

• a collection of 200 'outbursts' (a portmanteau term for greetings and exclamations)

• an appendix of 250 place names

The second edition of the dictionary will be kept within the same parameters.

Note on pronunciation

A word is stressed on the penultimate syllable in the absence of any specific indication. As in the first edition, a dot after a vowel indicates that the stress falls on the syllable containing that vowel. The new symbol ‖ after a word indicates that instead of a single stress accent two syllables of the word have approximately equal prominence. In the case of a polysyllabic word so marked, the prominent syllables are the first and second in compound formations like pedncyta, the first and third in verb-nouns ending with suffix -he. 

Reduction of unstressed vowels towards schwa is most likely to occur in syllables that follow a stress accent. But in words like hewel and hewil, or kevrath and kevreth, vowel reduction is naturally constrained. 

Author's acknowledgement

A big thank-you to all those users of the first edition who offered constructive comments over the past three years to help make Gerlyver Kescows a better book. The author is particularly grateful to Professor Nicholas Williams and Michael Everson for granting access to much unpublished material. Any errors remain the sole responsibility of the author.

Ian Jackson

This text: 28 October 2020 (10:15)


a’n barth-ma / tu-ma dhe2 phr on this side of

a’n par-ma phr as attributive adj of this kind

a’n par-na phr as attributive adj such, of that kind

a’n pla phr terrible, dreadful, awful

a’n present termyn phr current

a’n sêson phr as attributive adj seasonal

a bris phr as attributive adj distinguished (sb); important, significant (sth)

a brow phr as attributive adj advantageous, useful

a dheu phr [up]coming, next

a res phr as attributive adj necessary

a varhas dhâ phr as attributive adj cheap (good value)

a verr spis phr shortly, soon

a vresel phr as attributive adj military

a'y eseth phr sat, sitting

a'y sav phr stood, standing

a’y wosa phr thereafter, afterwards

a'y wroweth phr laid, lying

aba·rth prep + noun aba·rth dhe2 prep + pron on behalf of; in favour of (arguing etc)

abecedary alphabet See also in aray an abecedary

abe·rth in phr inside, within; into

aberveth adv in[side]

aberveth in phr inside, within; into

abhorrya loathe

abm m abmow kiss

abma [dhe2] kiss Verbal adj ibmys

aborpos adv intentionally, on purpose

abo·ynt (abrë·s) adv punctually

abyl adj capable, competent

academy m academys academy

acord m acordys accord, agreement

acordya (gans, orth) agree (with)

acordyng dhe2 prep according to

acordyon (corjel) m acordyons accordion

acownt (acompt) m acowntys account (financial)

acownt arhow m acowntys deposit account

acownt erbysyon m acowntys savings account

acownt kesres m acowntys current account

acowntya account; have a high regard for

acowntyas m acowntysy accountant

act m actys act (incl of Parliament)

adâ·l prep + noun adâ·l dhe2 prep + pron opposite; compared with

adamant m adamantys diamond

addya add Verbal adj addys is also used for extra

aden gales f adenyow cales hardback

aden vedhel f adenyow medhel paperback

adenewen adv aside

ader dro adv around; approximately

adermyn adv on time

adhevî·s adv exactly Also used as adj for first class; ideal

adhewedhes adv late (in time)

adhyhow adv on the right

adhyhow dhe2 prep on / to the right of

adhyscans education

adhyscansek adj educational

adre· adv [away] from home

adrë·v prep + noun adrë·v dhe2 prep + pron behind position

adro· adv around

adro· dhe2 prep around; relating to, concerning, about

adverb m adverbow adverb

afîna decorate; refine

afînans decoration; refinement

afînus adj ornamental

afînuster m afînusterow cosmetic

aflavar adj mute

afles disadvantage

afodyl (lylien Corawys) m afodylys daffodil

afrêsonus adj unreasonable

afydhya (dhe2) assure (sb)

agensow (degensow) adv recently

agle·dh adv on the left

agle·dh dhe2 prep on / to the left of

agria (gans) agree (with)

agrians agreement

agweth f agwedhow phase, stage

aha interj ah, aha (realization)

ahë·s adv along

air air

airborthm airborthow airport

airen f airednow aircraft

aireth m airedhow climate

airgelghm airgelhow atmosphere (all senses)

airlum airluyow air force

airstanchadj airtight

ajy· adv in[side]

ajy· dhe2 prep in[side], within; into

a·lamand m alamandys almond

ala·rm alarm (for security)

albùm m albùms album (music)

a·lcohol alcohol

alebma adv from here; ago (viewed from present)

alena adv from there

alergek adj (orth) allergic (to)

alê·s adv widely; apart (stretched out)

Allâ·h Allah

alowa allow; admit, acknowledge

alowadow adj legitimate

âls f âlsyow cliff

alsen f alsednow razor

alûmynyùm aluminium

alusen f alusonow charitable gift

alwhedha lock

alwhedhel f alwhedhellow keyboard

alwhedhen f alwhedhednow key (keyboard)

alwhedhor (tresoror) m alwhedhoryon treasurer

alwheth m alwhedhow key (for lock)

alwheth corkyn m alwhedhow corkscrew

alymona alimony, maintenance

amal m emlow edge

amanyn butter

a·mary m a·marys cupboard

amateur m amateurs amateur

amateurek adj amateur

amateurus adj amateurish

ambos m ambosow (orth) undertaking (to); condition

ambosek adj conditional

ambosow negys pl terms and conditions

amendya (mendya) put right, mend; revise

amêthy farm

amêthyans farming, agriculture

amowntyor (kevrivyador) m amowntyoryon computer

amowntyor dêwlin m amowntyoryon laptop

amseryow pl period (of woman)

amuvyansek adj sentimental

amuvyansus adj emotive

amyttya admit (all senses)

an Avar Capricorn

an bagas tyckly the awkward squad

An Benscol Egerys The Open University

an bobel the public

an bobel vian the fairies

an Bobm Brâs the Big Bang

an Canker Cancer

an cans phr per cent

an cùrunvîrùs [the] coronavirus

an dâ right (as opposed to wrong)

an Dasserghyans Kernowek the Cornish Revival

an Dowror Aquarius

an drog wrong (as opposed to right)

an Enebyans the Opposition (in Parliament)

an Evellas pl Gemini

an eyl torn ... ha tres aral phr now ... now

an Furv Scrifys Savonek (FSS) the Standard Written Form (SWF)

an Fydhyans Kenedhlek the National Trust

an Gov the Smith (Michael Joseph)

an gowethas society

an Gùntelles Adhevî·s the Premier League

an Gwariow Olympek pl the Olympic Games

an gwella (gwelha) oll ganso phr his favourite

an gwir a leverta phr you’re right

an Hordh Aries

an jowl phr after question word on earth, the devil, the hell

an Kenedhlow Udnys pl the United Nations

an Kesrosweyth the Internet

an Lew Leo

an Lotry [Kenedhlek] m the National Lottery

an Lybral Democratyon pl the Liberal Democrats

an mainys [kemunessa] pl the media

an Osow Cres pl the Middle Ages

an Pùscas pl Pisces

an Scorpyon Scorpio

an Sethor Sagittarius

an Spyrys Sans the Holy Spirit

an stairys wàr nans phr downstairs motion

an Tarow Taurus

an termyn a dheu the future

an termyn eus passys the past

an Udnyans Ewrôpek the European Union

an Vontol (Vantol) Libra

an Werhes Virgo

anal breath

analo·gieth m analogiethow analogy

ancertan adj uncertain

ancombra confuse (sb)

ancombrus adj confusing

ancombrynsy confusion

andenythyans m contraception

andesedhus adj inappropriate

andyblans adj imprecise

anella breathe

anês adj uneasy

aneth f anedhow abode

anêwn adj unfair

anfel adj naive

anfelder naivety

anfurvus adj informal

anfusyk adj unlucky, unfortunate

Anglycan adj Anglycans Anglican

angùs See in ewn angùs

anhegol adj sceptical (sb); incredible (sth)

ania (nia) annoy; worry

anians annoyance; boredom

anjùst adj unjust

anken m hardship, trouble

ankevy forget Pret ancovas Alternative verbal adj nakevys

anowy kindle; turn on (device, also sexual)

anserhak adj autonomous, independent

ansur adj unsure; indeterminate

a·ntarlyck m antarlyckys comedy

anteythy adj incompetent; hopeless (sb)

anvodhek adj reluctant

anvoth See [oll] a’y anvoth

anwhek adj unpleasant

anwos cold, chill (illness)

anwyw adj unsuitable

anyagh adj unhealthy (sb and figuratively)

anyahus adj unhealthy (sth)

anyen instinct(s)

aparn m aprodnyow apron

ape·rt adj obvious

apotecary m apotecarys pharmacist

appa m appys ape; mimic

appendyx appendix (anatomical)

apperya appear (come into sight)

apperyans appearance (coming into sight)

applaudya applaud

applaudyans applause

apposyans m apposyansow examination (academic)

apposyans drîvya m apposyansow driving test

appoyntyans m appoyntyansow appointment (date, time); fixture (sport)

aqwîrya acquire

aqwytyans receipt (document)

a·radar (ardar) m e·reder (erder) plough

arâ·g adv in front

aral adj (erel with pl noun) other See also ‘Grammar Words’ for pronominal use

aras plough Verbal adj erys

ara·y arrangement; layout

araya arrange (all senses)

arayans m arayansow arrangement (all senses)

arbednyk adj particular (specific)

arbenygor m arbenygoryon specialist, expert

arbenygya specialize

arbrevy experiment

arbrof m arbrovow experiment

arbrojy (arbrovjy) m arbrojiow laboratory

ardak m delay; reservation (about sth); check (in chess)

arenep m arenebow surface

areth f arethyow lecture, talk, speech

arethek adj rhetorical

arethva f arethvaow podium

arfedhor m arfedhoryon employer

arfedhysak m arfedhysogyon employee

arfeth m/v arfedhow employ(ment); wages

argas aggression

argebmyn m argemydnow advert[isement]

argemydna advertise

argh f arhow bin, tank (for storage / disposal of bulk: litter, rubbish, water etc)

argh-1 pref arch-

argh atal f arhow wheelie bin

arghpedrevan f arghpedrevanas dinosaur

argibya kidnap; hijack

argraf m argrafow impression

argùment m argùmentys argument (specific)

argya argue (develop an argument) Verbal adj usually argyes

arhadow order

arhans silver

arhansek adj financial

arhanso·rieth finance

arhanty (bank) m arhantiow bank

arhas m arhasow fund

arhasa fund Verbal adj arhesys

arlodhes f arlodhesow lady (peer)

arlùth m arlydhy lord

arlyw m arlywyow tint, shade; nuance

arlywa tint; nuance

army m armys army

arnowedhy modernize

arnowyth (modern) adj modern

arolegyth m arolegydhyon inspector

arsmetryk arithmetic

art m artys art

arta adv again; back again

artykyl (erthygyl) m artyclys article (written)

arv f arvow weapon

arva carnage

arva arm Verbal adj ervys

arvor coast

arvrusy assess

arvrusyans assessment

arwedha signal

arwedhek adj symbolic; emblematic

arwedhyk f arwedhygow badge

arweth f arwedhyow sign, signal (incl radio etc); symbol; character (keyboard)

arwhythrans m arwhythransow survey

ascendya ascend, go up

asclas col asclejen chips (potato)

ascor m/v produce

ascoras m ascorasow product

ascorn m eskern bone

ascûs excuse

asen m & f asenas donkey

asfalt asphalt

askel f eskelly wing; fin

askewera adapt

askeweror m askeweroryon adapter

asnodhow pl resources

asow col as[ow]en ribs

asper adj harsh

aspe·ryta harshness; austerity

aspia (aspias) catch sight of

aspia orth look out for; observe

aspians reconnaissance; surveillance

aspiyas m/v no inflection aspiysy (orth) spy (on)

asran f asradnow department

[Asran] Droglabmow ha Gorothobmow Accidents and Emergencies Department (A&E)

âss (byd) m âcys ace

assaultya assault, attack

assaultyans assault, attack

assa·y m assayes attempt; exercise; rehearsal

assaya attempt (sth); exercise; rehearse

assentya (dhe2, orth) consent (to), agree (with)

assentyans (dhe2, orth) consent (to), agreement (with)

assoylya solve

assoylyans solution

astel discontinue; suspend

astel ober m/phr strike

astell f estyll board

astell dartyow f estyll dartboard

astell dîvya f estyll diving board

astell gool f estyll sailboard, windsurfer

astell mordardha f estyll surfboard

astell omborth f estyll see-saw

astellwolya go sailboarding / windsurfing

astelor m asteloryon striker

astevery (neppëth dhe nebonen) compensate (sb for sth)

asvaba adopt (child) Verbal adj asvebys

aswon (ajon) know (be acquainted with); recognize, identify; acknowledge Pret aswonys Note construction bos aswonys dhe nebonen = be known to sb

aswon (godhvos) grâss dhe2 phr (a2) thank (for)

aswy f aswiow gap; loophole (figuratively)

atal col rubbish

athlêt m athlêtys athlete

athvejy ripen, mature

athves adj ripe, mature

athvetter ripeness, maturity

atom m atomow atom

atorny m atornys solicitor (loosely)

attal repayment; retaliation

attendya pay attention (to)

atte·nt attempt

attês adj/m comfort(able) (sb)

attylly repay; retaliate

aucto·ryta m aucto·rytys authority

auctour m auctours author

augrym m augrymow algorithm

automatek adj automatic

aval m avallow apple

aval gwlanek m avallow peach

aval kerensa m avallow tomato

aval paradîs m avallow grapefruit

avàn (wàr vàn) adv above position; upstairs position

avan col avanen (pl avadnow) raspberries

ava·rr adv early (incl before due time)

avauncya advance; progress; promote

avauncyans advance; progress

avell ûsadow phr as usual

aventur m aventurs adventure

aventuryans venture, enterprise

avê·s (wàr ves) adv out[side] position

avê·s dhe2 prep outside position

avîsyans advice; notice, notification

avorow adv tomorrow

avortans abortion

avowa admit, acknowledge

avoydya (voydya) depart, leave

avy liver

awartha adv at the top

awaylak adj evangelical

awedhya influence

awedhyans influence

awedhyansus adj influential

awednow pl jaws

awel f awellow gale; weather

awen inspiration, muse See also rych y awen

awenek adj inspirational

awenyth m awenydhyon genius (sb)

awhesyth m awhesydhas [sky]lark

awoles (wàr woles) adv at the bottom; downstairs position

awo·s prep + noun, indefinite pron, bos, infinitive construction because (of) (affirmative only)

awo·s hedna phr in spite of that, nonetheless, nevertheless

aysel vinegar


baby m babiow baby

backa tobacco

backen bacon

bactêryùm m bactêrya bacterium

badhya bathe Verbal adj usually badhyes

badna m banahow drop; with express negative anything, with implied negative nothing

bagas m bagasow group; troop (actors)

bagas dyberthys m bagasow splinter group

bagas kevos m bagasow year group

bagas lavur m bagasow working party

bagh m bahow hook; hinge

bagh f bahow cage (for animal); prison (slang)

baha hook Verbal adj behys

bal m balow mining complex

balcon m balcons balcony; circle (in theatre)

balegy jut out

balgh See bos balgh a2

baloun air tobm m balouns hot air balloon

ballyer m ballyers barrel

bàn m banow height (high place) See also in bàn

banana m bananys banana

baner m banerow flag, banner

bank botellow m bancow bottle bank

banket m bankettys banquet

Baptyst m Baptystyon Baptist

bara bread

[bara] cras toast

ba·rbecuw m barbecuwys barbecue

barber m barbers barber

bardh m berdh bard

Bardh Meur m Berdh Veur Grand Bard

bardhonak m bardhenogow poem

bargednya bargain, haggle

bargen m bargenys bargain (deal)

bargen tir m bargenys farm

barlen f barlednow lap

barlys col barley

barr m barrow top, summit

barr m barrys bar (incl for drinks)

barrya bar; bolt (door, gate)

barryas m barryasow barrier

barryth m barydhyon barman, barista

barthusek adj marvellous, phenomenal

barv f barvow beard

barvus m barvusy cod

bas adj shallow

basâ·r trog m basârow car boot sale

basnet m basnettys helmet

bason m basons basin

baster m shallowness

batalyas battle, fight

batel f batalyow battle

bath m bathow coin

bathador m bathadoryon slot machine

bay m bayes bay

bayt m baytys byte

bedh m bedhow tomb, grave

bednath f benothow blessing

bêgel m bêgelyow navel

benega bless

Benenes (Myrhas) pl Ladies (toilet)

benow adj female; feminine (grammar)

benthygya borrow (sth specific)

benyn f benenes woman

benyn ambosys f benenes fiancée

bern concern; *care about

berry fat

berus adj fluid

berusyon pl fluid(s)

bës m besias finger; hand (clock)

bës troos m besias toe

best m bestas animal

best brodnek m bronegyon mammal

besydhya baptize, christen

besyth (bejyth) baptism, christening

betys rudh col betysen beetroot(s)

bew adj alive; live (TV etc); lively

bêwa (orth) live (on) (food etc)

bewbodradow adj biodegradable

bewder liveliness

bewek adj lively

bewekheliven up

beweth m bewedhow lifestyle

bew’heanimate; activate (device)

bêwnans m bêwnansow life

bian (byhan) adj small, little

bîbyn-bûbyn m bîbyn-bûbynas shrimp

biologyl adj biological

blam blame

blâmya blame See also dhe vlâmya

bla·sfemy blasphemy

bledhednek adj annual

bledhen f bledhydnyow year

blejen an gùcû f blejednow bluebell

blejen tùlyfant f blejednow tulip

blesys dâ phr tasty

bleus flour

blew col blewen hair(s)

bleydh m bleydhas wolf

bleyn m bleynow tip; peak (incl of cap)

bleyno·rieth f priority

blòg m blogs blog

blogh adj hairless

blonegek adj greasy

blonek fat, grease

bloodh year (of age)

blou adj blue (contrasted with green)

blùbber m blùbbers jellyfish

bludh adj delicate

bludhyans menowghter frequency modulation (FM)

bobaunsus adj pompous, pretensious

bobba (idyot) m bobbys idiot

bobm m bobmyn bang See also an Bobm Brâs

bobmen f bomednow blow

bockyl m boclys buckle

bodh See herwyth bodh, [oll] a’y vodh

bodh dâ goodwill

bodhar adj deaf

bodharus adj deafening

bodhek adj bodhygyon voluntary, volunteer

bogh f bohow cheek

bohes (bohes before b, g, gw, m) quant + singular or collective noun little; few

bohes venowgh phr rarely, seldom

bohes y vern phr indifferent; unimportant

bohosak (bohojak) adj bohosogyon poor

bohosogneth poverty

bojet m bojettys budget

bold adj bold

bolder boldness

bolhen f bolhednow capsule (for medication)

boll adj see-through

bolla m bollys bowl (deep)

bollen f bolednow bulb (electric)

bolùnjedhek adj willing; optional

bond m bondys band (fastening); tyre

bond gwethyn m bondys rubber band

bond ledan broadband

bonk m bonkys bump

bool f bolow axe

boos food

boos tryg shellfish

boosa feed (animal, machine, media)

boostym boostiow restaurant

bord m bordys table; board

borger m borgers burger

bos (bones) be Note construction y'n jeves = he has [got] and alternatives ev a’n jeves, y’n jeves ev See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

bos balgh a2 phr take pride in

bos genys phr be born

bos heb phr lack

bos res porrêsphr be essential; be urgent

bos tregys (trigys) in phr live in

bost m bôstow boast

bôstya boast

botas col botasen boots

botas palvek col botasen flippers (for wearing)

botel f botellow bottle

bothan m bothadnow hump; bulge

bothel f bothlow bubble

boton m botodnow button

bownder lane

bowyn See [kig] bowyn

bowyn ha loneth phr steak and kidney

box m boxys box (container)

boxesy box (strike)

brabm m brebmyn fart

brabma fart Verbal adj brybmys

bran f bryny crow

brandy brandy

brâs adj brâsyon big, large; pl VIPs See also dre vrâs

brâster m brâsterow size

brâstir m brâstiryow continent

brathy bite (to hurt)

brav adj fine, grand

brawehy terrify; terrorize

bre f breow hill

bregh f brehow arm

breghtan m breghtanow sandwich

breha inoculate

brehel m brehellow sleeve

brenya give directions; run (event, organization)

brenyk col brenygen limpets

brës m brësyow mind

bresel argument (dispute); war See also a vresel

breselor m breseloryon militant

brest brass

brèst chest (anatomy)

Bretednek adj British

Bretonek adj/m Breton (incl language, optionally preceded by an)

breus f breusow judgement, opinion See also dh’y vreus ev

brew adj/m brewyon injured; bruise, sore, wound (minor)

brêwy v bruise; crush; smash, shatter; mash

Brexyt (Bretmes ‖) Brexit

briansen throat

briel (brithel) m brilly mackerel

brith adj spotted, speckled

brivya bleat

bro f broyow land, country (often with sense of intimacy)

brocha m brochys brooch

broder m breder brother

brodn f brodnow breast (particularly female) See also ry brodn dhe2

brodngolmm brongolmow bra[ssiere]

brodnlenf bronlednow bib

brodn-nothadj topless

brogh m brohas badger

brons bronze

bros stew

bros m brojow sting

brôsa sting


brôsya embroider Verbal adj usually brôsyes

browsyon col browsyonen crumbs (bread, cake etc)

brusyas m brusysy referee

bryck m bryckys brick

bryjyon boil Pret brojyas

bryketh col brykethen apricots

bryntyn (brentyn) adj noble; excellent

brÿs [benyn] womb

bùcka m bùckyas gremlin; ghost; scarecrow

bùcket (kelorn) m bùckettys bucket

Bùdda Buddha

Bù·ddieth Buddhism

Bùddyst m Bùddystyon Buddhist

budhy drown; sink

budhyans flooding

bufêm bufês ‖ buffet

buwhyk Duw m buwhygow ladybird

bùlet m bùlettys bullet

bùlgh m bùlhow slot

bùlly m bùllys bully

bùluk col bùlugen earthworms

bùly col bùlien stones (round)

bùrdhen m bùrdhens refrain (song)

bùsh m bùshys bush

bùsh brâs a quant a whole lot of

bùss m bùssow bus

bùss bian m bùssow minibus

buwgh f buhas cow

bykîny n bykînys bikini

byldyor m byldyoryon builder

byldya build

bylyard tavern pool (game)

bylyonair m bylyonairs billionaire

byns f bynsow vice, clamp (incl for vehicle)

byrla hug, embrace

bÿs world

bys prep + adv or numeral until

bys dhe2 prep + pron bys in prep + noun [up] to; until 

bys i'n eur-ma phr up to now

bys vycken [ha bys venary] phr for ever [and ever]

bÿsestren m bÿsestrednyon extra-terrestrial, alien

byskyt m byskyttys biscuit (sweet or savoury)

bysow m besewow ring (for finger / toe)

bysy adj busy; engaged (telephone, toilet)

bysy yw phr + verb-noun, infinitive construction, na-clause it is important

bytegy·ns adv however

bÿth na lavar a'n dra phr don’t mention it

bythqweth adv ever; with implied negative never (past reference)

bythweradj evergreen

byttele· adv nonetheless, nevertheless


cabel criticism (adverse)

cabester m cabestrow loop; noose; strap (shoulder)

cablek adj critical (adverse), derogatory

cablus adj guilty

cably criticize (adversely)

cabm adj crooked; wrong (sth)

cabma twist, distort

cabmas bay (wide – e.g. Mount’s Bay)

cabmhùmbrank mislead

cabmnedhys adj tangled

cabmwonys bungle

cabûlva muddle

cabûly stir (liquid)

cabyn m cabyns cabin

cabyn lewyador m cabyns cockpit

ca·bynet m cabynettys cabinet

cachya catch; catch up Verbal adj cachys or kychys

cactùs m cactùsow cactus

cader herdhya f caderyow pushchair

cader rosow f caderyow wheelchair

cader vrehek f caderyow brehek armchair

caderya chair, preside (over)

caderyor m caderyoryon chairman

cadnas f canhasow delegate, representative; messenger; message

cadnas vôtya f canhasow proxy

cafas m cafasow container; tin, can (incl of / for food / drink)

cafas dowrhem cafasow watering can

cafos (cavos, cawas) have, get; find (incl by experience) See also dhe gafos

cafos cowas phr take a shower

cafosyans acquisition

caja daisy

càl penis

càl cog dildo

cala col straw

calco·rieth mathematics

cales adj hard; difficult

calesen f calesednow corn, callus

caletter m caleterow difficulty; problem

calhen f calhednow [stick of] chalk

callek (gossenek) adj rusty

caltor f caltoryow kettle

càm See wàr gàm

camdremenyas m camdremenysy trespasser

ca·mera m ca·meras camera

ca·mera kelgh clos m ca·meras CCTV camera

ca·mera toth m ca·meras speed camera

camhensek adj wrong, immoral, unethical, wicked

camp m campys camp

campolla (compla) refer to

campolla andydro phr allude to

campùs m campùsow campus

campva f campvaow campsite

campya camp

campyor m campyoryon champion

campyory championship

camùnderstondyng misunderstanding

camva f camvaow stile

cân m canow song

cana m canys tin, can (e.g. for roasting, for petrol)

cana sing; play (music, musical instrument) Verbal adj kenys

canaseth m canasedhow delegation; embassy

canel f canolyow channel (incl TV)

canker m kencras crab; cancer See also an Canker

canor m canoryon singer; player (music, incl device)

cans See an cans And see Numerals for use as numeral

cansran f cansradnow percentage

canstel f canstellow basket

cansvledhen f cansvledhydnyow century

cantol f cantolyow candle

capel m caplys cable

cappa m cappys cap; topping (cookery)

capten m captenow captain

car m kerens relative; pl parents (loosely)

cara love; like Verbal adj kerys Note construction ev a garsa gwil neppëth = he would like to do sth See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

cara warbarth phr (gans) make love (to) 

caradow adj likeable; kind

ca·ramel caramel

ca·ravan m caravanow caravan

cardygon m cardygonow cardigan

cares f caresow girlfriend

caretys col caretysen carrots

carg m cargow load; upload; charge (electricity)

carga load; upload; charge (electricity)

cargor m cargoryon charger

carn m carnow tor; cairn

carnak adj rocky (exposed bedrock)

carnal adj erotic, sexy As attributive adj carnal precedes or follows its noun

carnal joy sex (intercourse)

ca·rnyval m ca·rnyvals carnival

caror m caroryon boyfriend

caro·rieth relationship (sexual)

carow Nordek m kyrwas reindeer

carr clojym kerry ambulance

carr slynkya m kerry sleigh, sledge

carr [tan] m kerry car

carregek adj rocky

carrek f carygy rock

carrhens dewblek m carrhensy dual carriageway

carrjym carrjiow garage

carten f cartednow card (individual)

carten cravas f cartednow scratch card

carten cresys f cartednow credit card

carten debys f cartednow debit card

carten dynerhy f cartednow greetings card

carthpîb f carthpîbow drainpipe

carven f carvenow van

carven campya f carvenow camper van

carya transport Verbal adj usually caryes

caryach m caryajys carriage; coach (train)

caryach baby m caryajys pram

caryans transport[ation]

cas hatred; *dislike, disapprove of

casadow adj horrible, repulsive

casek coos f casygy woodpecker

caskergh campaign

caslÿs f caslÿsyow headquarters; camp (politics)

câss m câssys case (all senses) See also in neb câss

cast m castys trick, hoax, practical joke

castel m castylly castle

castya trick, hoax

cath f cathas cat

Catholyk adj Catholic

cathyk m & f cathygow kitten

cauns pavement; courtyard (open)

causya cause

cav m câvyow cave

cavach m cavajys cabbage

cavylek adj contentious, controversial

cawdarn m cawdarns boiler

cawgh shit

cawha shit

cawlvlejen f cawlvlejednow cauliflower

cawlvlejen gales broccoli

cawlyk col cawlygen Brussels sprouts

cay m cayow quay; platform (for train)

centy-1 pref centi-

certan adj certain

certuster certainty

cessya cease

cessyans tedna ceasefire

ceyber-1 pref cyber-

châcya chase

chain m chainys chain

chair m chairys chair

chair howl m chairys deck chair

chalynj m chalynjys challenge

chalynjya challenge

chambour m chambours chamber; bedroom

chapel m chapelyow chapel

chaptra m chaptrys chapter

charj m charjys responsibility (to perform specific task) See also gorra in charj dhe2

chauncya risk

chaunj m chaunjys change, modification

chaunjus adj variable

chaunjya change, modify

chauns m chauncys chance; opportunity

chawk m chawkys jackdaw

checken f checkednow cheque

checker m checkers chessboard; check (pattern)

checkva f checkvaow security [check]

checkya check

chêny col china[ware]

cher mood

chersya (chêsya) pamper

chersya (chêsya) re phr spoil

cherya care for (sb)

chêson (achêson) m chêsons (a2) reason, motive (for)

chif-1 pref main, principal

chocklet m chocklettys chocolate

chy m treven house, building See also in chy

Chy an Arlydhy The House of Lords

Chy an Gebmyn The House of Commons

chy brîhy m treven brewery

chyly chilli

chymbla m chymblys chimney

chyrùrjen m chyrùrjens surgeon

chyrù·rjery surgery

cîder cider

clamder faint, blackout

clamdera faint, blackout

clamderyas m clamderysy anaesthetic

clapes m clapesow valve

clappya chat

class m classys class

classya classify

classyk adj classygyon classic

clattra clatter; chatter, babble

clâv adj ill, sick


cledh adj left

cledh m cledhyow ditch, trench

cledha m cledhydhyow sword

cledhek adj clumsy

cledhyas m cledhysy left-handed person

clegar m clegrow precipice

cler adj clear

clerheclarify, explain

cles adj cosy, snug

clether f clethrow rail

clevejus adj infectious

clevejy infect

clevejyans m clevejyansow infection

cleves m clevejow illness, disease

cleves dyglon depression

cleves epydemyk m epydemygyon epidemic

cleves esely rheumatism

cleves melys diabetes

cleves strewy hayfever

cleves wheja nausea

client m cliens client

clock m clockys clock

clock dyfuna m clockys alarm clock

cloffy limp

clogh m clegh bell

clojior m clojioryon nurse

clojy (clâvjy) m clojiow hospital

clôk m clôkys cloak

clôkva f clôkvaow cloakroom

cloppek adj lame

clor adj gentle, mild

clorder gentleness, mildness

clos adj/m clôsys enclosed; stuffy; enclosure (place)

clos f clojow lattice; framework; rack, crate; hurdle

cloud m cloudys cloud

clout m cloutys cloth (small piece); patch

cloutya patch

clôwel f clôwellow hearing aid

clôwes hear; smell (sth); feel (sensation)

clùb m clùbbys club

clùba v no inflection go clubbing

clun f clunyow hip

clyckya click

clyjjy toffee

clynyk m clynygow clinic

clyp m clyppys clip

cober copper

côcha m côchys coach

cocktêl m cocktêls cocktail

côcô cocoa

co·codryl m cocodrylys crocodile

cod m côdys code

codha fall; befall Note construction y coodh / codhvia dhodho + verb-noun = he should (have)

codha in dyfyk phr crash verb (device, market)

codha warbarth phr collapse verb

codna neck

codna bregh wrist

codnek adj clever

coffy coffee

coffyva f coffyvaow café

cofyr m cofrow chest, trunk (box)

cog adj silly, pointless

côk m cûcow fishing boat

côla cola

cola orth phr listen to (heed)

colenwel fulfil; accomplish

colhes f colhesow mattrass

coljym coljiow college

coll loss See also mos dhe goll

collel f kellyl knife

colm m colmow bond, tie; knot, bow

colm codna m colmow tie (for neck)

colmen bleg f colmednow pleg bow tie

colodhyon col colodhyonen bowels, intestines

colodnek adj hearty, genial; brave

colom f kelemy dove, pigeon

colon f colodnow heart (incl in cards) See also ry colon dhe2

colonecter heartiness, geniality; bravery

colonen f colonednow core

colour m colours colour

coloven f colovednow column

colpes m colpesow lever

colpon m colpons coupon

colyn m kelyn puppy

comendya approve; recommend; introduce (sb to sth)

comendyans approval; recommendation

comfort (confort) comfort; consolation See also heb comfort

comfortya (confortya) comfort, console

comolek adj cloudy

comondya command Note construction comondya dhe nebonen (or infixed pron) may whrella / na wrella neppëth = command sb to do / not to do sth

omparya compare

comparyans comparison; simile

compas extent; compass

compassus adj comprehensive

compes adj straight; even; right (morally); qualified (for sth)

complek (completh) adj complex; complicated


complethter complexity

composa straighten; put right; verify

composter m composterow qualification

compôsya compose (music, poetry etc)

compôsyth m compôsydhyon composer 

comprehendya include

compressa oppress

comptya (cowntya) count (how many)

comûn communion (sacrament)

comyck m comycks comic (periodical)

comyssyon m comyssyons commission (body)

conar fury; mania

concêvya conceive (all senses)

conceyt concept

concrît concrete

condom m condoms condom

coneryak adj furious; manic

confessya confess

confessyon m confessyons confession

confyrmya confirm

cons vagina

consel m consels council; management committee

Consel Kernow Cornwall Council

consent consent

constrîna compel

constrînus adj binding; compulsory

consûmyor m consûmyoryon consumer

consyans (keskians) conscience

consydra consider

consystya a2 phr consist of

content m contens content

contentya satisfy

contrary adj/m contrarys (dhe2) contrary (to); opposite; opponent, adversary As attributive adj contrary precedes or follows its noun See also i’n contrary part

contraweytya intercept; ambush

contrefêtya fake, forge

controllya control

controllyans daromres air air traffic control

convedhes perceive, understand Verbal adj convedhys, no other inflection

conversacyon morals, [general] behaviour

convyctya convict

conyn m conynas rabbit

coodh fall

coos m cosow wood (place of trees)

copel m coplow couple; pair

copia copy

copy m copiow copy

cor wax; polish (for shoes)

cor lenter polish (for furniture)

cora wax (car, furniture, legs etc)

Corawys Lent

cord m cordys chord

corden f kerdyn string

coref beer, ale

coref gell pale ale

coref gorm brown ale

coref scav lager

corf m corfow body

corf eskern m corfow skeleton

corf lahys m corfow constitution

corfassayans gymnastics

corflan (corlan) f corfladnow churchyard; cemetery

corfloskva f corfloskvaow crematorium

corflywans m corflywansow tattoo

corforek adj physical

corkyn m corkydnow cork; stopper; float (for fishing)

corn m kern horn, antler

corn denewy m kern funnel (for pouring)

cornel f cornellow corner

corr-2 pref dwarf, mini-

corrbrëvm corrbrëves microbe, bug

corrdodnor m corrdonoryon microwave [oven]

cors m corsow course (navigation, study)

cort f cortys court (courtyard, legal, tennis etc)

cortes adj polite

cortesy politeness, courtesy

corvarvus m corvarvusy haddock

corynt du m coryns blackcurrant

cosa itch; tickle; tingle

cosel adj quiet, peaceful


cosmer m cosmers customer

cosmos cosmos

cosolek adj calm, tranquil

cosoleth calm, tranquility, peace and quiet

còst m costow cost

còst (mona) spênys m costow expense

cost See i’n côstys-ma

costen f costednow basket (large and flat – e.g. for dog); target

costrel m costrels flask

costya cost

cosva f itch; tickle; tingle

cot adj short, brief

cot y berthyans phr impatient

cot y wolok phr short-sighted

côta m côtys coat

coth adj old; stale (bread etc)


cothhev age

cothman m cothmans friend

coton cotton

cov m covyon memory See also dry dhe gov, perthy cov

covath record(s)

covep f covebow monument

covlenf covlednow dossier

covnôtyans m covnôtyansow minute (record)

covrol f covrolyow register

covscrefa register

covscrifva f covscrifvaow archive

covva f covvaow hideout

cow adj/m cowyow hollow; cavity

cowal adj whole (predicatively); gross (finance)

coward m cowars coward

cowas f cowosow shower (rain, washing)

cowel m kewel basket (deep – e.g. for laundry); cage (for bird)

coweth m cowetha companion; friend, comrade; pl company (companionship)

cowethas f cowethasow association, society; firm, company See also an gowethas

cowethas che·ryta (cha·ryta) f cowethasow charity (organization)

cowethyans m cowethyansow organization

cowl soup

cowl-2 pref complete, entire; gross (finance)

cowlardak checkmate

cowles jelly

cowlsùmm cowlsùmys total

cowlwilcomplete; fulfil; achieve

cowlwrians achievement(s)

cowntnans attitude(s)

cowrek adj huge, enormous

cowrvarghm cowrvergh camel

cows m cowsow speech, talk

côwsel (orth) speak, talk (to) Pret côwsas See also heb côwsel a2

coynt adj curious, odd; clever

coyntys peculiarity, quirk

crambla climb, scramble

cramblor m crambloryon climber

crampeth col crampethen pancakes

crampeth tellek col crampethen crumpets

cramvilm cramvilas reptile

cramyas crawl

cras See [bara] cras

crasa toast Verbal adj cresys

cravas m/v scratch, scrape

cravel f cravellow scraper

cravel defendya f cravellow eraser

crefhestrengthen; reinforce; intensify

crefny adj/f greed(y)

creft f creftow craft, skill

crefter strength; intensity; validity

creftor m creftoryon craftsman

creftus (serus) adj artificial

cregy hang Pret crogas

crejyans f crejyansow belief; faith, religion

crellas ruin (building)

crena (kerna) tremble, shake intr

crenwredhen f crenwredhednow bulb (plant)

crenyth m crenydhyon vibrator

cres adj/m middle See also in cres

cres peace

cresek adj central; average

cresen f cresednow centre (for particular activity)

creslu police

crespoynt hub (figuratively)

crespoyntya (wàr2) focus (on) (figuratively)

cresten f crestednow crust

cresy (crejy) (neppëth / dhe nebonen) believe

cresyk m cresygow crisp

cresys m crejysow credit

creunva f creunvaow reservoir; kitty

creunyon pl reserves

crev adj strong; intense; valid

creythen f creythednow scar

cria (pronounced 'creya', sometimes written creia) v shout, cry, call

cria in mes phr exclaim

crib f crîbow comb; ridge

crîbya comb

crig m crigow crack

cris m crisyow shirt, blouse

cris T m crisyow T-shirt

cris whës m crisyow sweatshirt

crispows f crispowsyow waistcoat

Cristoneth Christianity

Cristyon adj/m Cristonyon Christian

criv adj raw; unripe; crude

crobm adj bent; crumpled; numb with cold (fingers, toes)

crobma bend; crumple; go numb with cold (fingers, toes)

crobmgenter f cromgentrow staple (fastening)

crobmgentra staple

crôch m crôchys crutch

croder m crodrow sieve (for kitchen)

croffal (crothval) grumble, growl, mutter; complaint

croffolas (wàr2) grumble, growl, mutter (at); complain

crogen f cregyn shell (animal)

crogen pedn m cregyn scull

croglenf croglednow curtain

crohen f crehyn skin; leather

crohen an lagas f crehyn eyelid

cron m cronow strap, thong

cronak m cronogas toad

cronak ervys m cronogas tortoise

cronk m cronkys thump

cronkya thump, thrash

croust packed lunch; snack

croust wàr ves picnic

crow m crewow socket

crow m crowyow hut

crowd (fyll) m crowdys violin

crows f crowsow cross

crowsak adj cross, irritable, grumpy

crowseryow pl crossword

cruel adj cruel

crug m crugyow mound

crùllys adj curly

cruny accumulate

cruskyn m cruskydnow tankard

cry m criow shout, cry, call

crycket cricket (game)

crygh adj/m cryhow wrinkle; wrinkled, crinkled, rumpled 

cryjyk adj religious (sb)

cûb m cûbys cube

cubmyas (rag) permission (for) See also ry cubmyas rag

cubmyas lewyas driving licence

cùcû f cùcûs cuckoo

cùcùmbra m cùcùmbrys cucumber

cudh adj concealed; covert

cudha cover; conceal

cudhlenf cudhlednow cover (incl of book)

cudyn m cudydnow lock (hair); snag, problem

cùgol m cùgollow hood

cùhudha accuse

cùhudhans m cùhudhansow accusation

cùhudhor a'n tu aberveth m cùhudhoryon whistle-blower

cul adj narrow

culder narrowness

culhenarrow; restrict (sth)

cùlt m cùltys cult

culyak m culyogas cock[erel]

culyak reden m culyogas grasshopper; locust (incl figuratively)

cunor m cunoryon lighter

cùntell gather, collect; pick up

cùntellek adj collective

cùntelles congress, convention, league See also an Gùntelles Adhevîs

cùntellva congregation; assembly

cùntellyans collection; meeting (formal)

cunys col fuel

cûr care (community, day, social etc)

cûr See dres an cûr

cùrry m cùrrys curry

cùrun f cùrunyow crown

cùruna crown

cùrunvîrùs See an cùrunvîrùs

cùryak m cùryogas pimple

cùsca sleep

cùsk sleep; dry rot

cùssul f cùssulyow advice; suggestion; plan

cùssulya advise; suggest; discuss; plan Note construction cùssulya nebonen a wil / na wrella neppëth = advise sb to do / not to do sth

cùssulyador v cùssulyadoryon adviser

cùssulyans consultation

cùssya swear (bad language)

cùstard custard

cuv adj dear; kind

cygaryk m cygarygow cigarette

cylynder m cylyndrow cylinder

cyment cement

cynycus adj cynical

cyrcùmstans m cyrcùmstancys circumstance

cyrk (cyrcùs) m cyrcow circus

cyta f cytys (cytas) city


adj good; *like See also an dâ

dâ lowr phr okay

dâ y vlas phr appetizing

dadhel (dal) f dadhlow debate; pl discussions

dadhla (dala) debate Verbal adj dedhlys

da·dhelor m dadheloryon barrister

daffar materials; appliance, instrument

daffar cales hardware (ICT)

daffar lybm cutlery

dagrow pl tears (weeping)

dainty adj dainty, nice

dalathfos beginning, origin

dalathor m dalathoryon beginner

dalgh capacity (volume)

dalhedna seize; arrest

dalhen grasp; arrest

dall adj dellyon blind

dalla v dazzle; hoodwink Verbal adj dellys

dallath m/v begin(ning) Pret dalathas Verbal adj dalethys

dalva quarrel

dama f damiow mother; dame

dama dhâ f damiow dâ mother-in-law

dama wydn f damiow gwydn grandmother

damach m damajys damage

damca·nieth f damcaniethow theory

dampnacyon damnation; condemnation

dampnya (dampna) damn; condemn Verbal adj dempnys

danjer See heb danjer, in danjer, perthy danjer

dans m dens tooth

danvon (dynwyn) send, dispatch Verbal adj danvenys Note construction danvon nebonen a wil neppëth = send sb to do sth

daras m darajow door

daras gorotham m darajow emergency exit

darbar m apparatus, kit

darbaror m darbaroryon assistant (dental, laboratory etc)

darbary prepare, provide

darbary shara contribute (to sth)

dargan prediction, forecast

dargana predict, forecast Verbal adj dargenys

darn m/quant darnow piece, bit; some of

daromdag traffic jam

daromres m/v traffic; come and go

darsewya prosecute

dart m dartyow dart (for game)

dascafos retrieve

dascor v yield; give back, return

dasformya reform

daslenwel refill

dasleverel repeat (sth said) Pret dasleverys or daslavaras 

daslif feedback

dasoberor m dasoberoryon reactor

dasseny echo Pret dassonas

dasserghyans See an Dasserghyans Kernowek

dasson echo

dassteusadow adj recyclable

dassteusya (eylgelghya) recycle

dastesky revise (learning)

dastewynya reflect (light)

dasvêwa revive

daswel m daswelyow review

dasweles review

daswil repeat (sth done)

dauncya dance

dauncyor m dauncyoryon dancer

dauns m dauncyow dance

davas f deves sheep

de adv yesterday

de Gwener adv/m (on) Friday

de Lun adv/m (on) Monday

de Merher adv/m (on) Wednesday

de Merth adv/m (on) Tuesday

de Sadorn adv/m (on) Saturday

de Sul adv/m (on) Sunday

de Yow adv/m (on) Thursday

debry eat Pret debras

debrys ha due phr all gone (food)

decernya discern, distinguish

declaracyon m declaracyons declaration, assertion; announcement

declarya declare, assert; announce

dëdh (> jëdh after an, an keth, in, udn) m dedhyow day See also settya dëdh

dëdh keas m dëdhyow deadline

Dëdh Tregedna m Dedhyow Tregedna Day (event where only Cornish is spoken)

dëdhlyver m dëdhlyvrow diary

dedhyador m dedhyadoryon calendar

dedhyans m dedhyansow date

defendya erase; eliminate; dispel

defens defence

defia defy

defînya define

defînyans definition

defolya violate; rape

defowt defect, bug; default, failure

defry (yn tefry) adv indeed

degador m degadoryon vehicle

degea close, shut Verbal adj degë·s = closed, shut adj

degemeres receive, accept; adopt (policy etc)

degemeror m degemeroryon recipient

degol m degolyow holiday

degrê· m degrê·s degree (rank, temperature)

dehen cream

dehen cowlys clotted cream

dehen howl suntan lotion

dehen rew ice-cream

dehesy hurl, fling

del col dêlen leaves

dêlcodha adj deciduous

delfyn m delfynas dolphin

delînya draw; delineate

delînyans m delînyansow drawing

delît delight

delîtya delight

delk m delcow jewellery (any piece fixed with a clasp)

dell hevel (past reference dell hevelly) phr apparently

dell yw ûsys (past reference dell o ûsys) phr usually

delow f delwow icon (all senses)

delvrysm delvrysow ideal

delvrysek adj ideal

delvry·sieth idealism

delycyùs adj delicious

delyfra deliver (all senses); acquit

demedhy marry

demedhyans wedding

democratek adj democratic

democra·tieth democracy

demondya demand

den m tus man; person; one (as subject of verb) See also dhyrag tus

den dyfudhy m tus firefighter

den jentyl m tus gentleman

den rescous m tus rescuer

dendyl earn; deserve

denethy give birth (to); generate

denewy pour (in quantity)

dengaradj humanitarian

densak adj/m densogas jagged; serrated; hake

densel bite (to eat); chew

densyth m densydhyon dentist

denyl adj human

departya v depart, leave

dera·y disorder

derevel (drehevel) raise; rise

derivadow report, statement; declaration, manifesto

derivas m/v derivasow (orth) tell, inform; report Pret derivys

derivas cot m derivasow summary

descador m descadoryon teacher

descrefa describe

desedha position, fit; adjust Verbal adj desedhys also used for situated

desedhans m setting(s)

desef m desevyow assumptispon

deseha wipe [up]

desehor m desehoryon wiper (windscreen)

desempys adj/adv sudden, abrupt, immediate; instant (coffee etc); suddenly, abruptly, immediately

desevos assume

desîn m desînys design

desînya design

desîrya desire

desk m deskys desk

desky learn Pret descas Note construction desky neppëth dhe nebonen teach sb sth

deskys brâs phr learned

desmygy guess; imagine

desmygy knack ena / obma phr improvize

desmygyans m imagination; improvization

desmygyansus adj imaginary

desmyk guess; puzzle; riddle

despîsya despise

despî·t insult; contempt See also in despî·t dhe2

despîtya insult

desta v fixed 2nd state witness; certify

destewel silence

destnans destiny, fate

determya determine Note construction bos determys dhe wil neppëth = be determined to do sth

devedhek adj/m future

devedhyans m devedhyansow arrival; origin

devera drip; trickle

devera dagrow / goos phr shed tears / blood

devera dowr phr leak

deveryn m deverydnow drip, drop

devî·s desire, plan

devnyth m devnydhyow subject-matter; ingredient; use See also gwil devnyth a2

devyn m devydnow quotation

devynes quote

dewana penetrate Verbal adj dewenys

dewas m dewosow drink

dewdhek Cort an Gùrun pl the jury (in criminal trial)

dewdhorn du handlebars

dewedha end, terminate

dewedhes adj late (in time)

dewetha adj last

dewfrik du nose

dewheles come / go back, return

dêwla du hands (pair)

dêwlin du knees (pair) See also mos wàr bedn dêwlin

dewweder du binoculars

dewyn m dewydnow beam, ray

dhan[a] adv then, in that case

dhe'n dor phr down motion

dhe’n kensa vu phr at first sight

dhe'n lyha phr at least

dhe blebmyk phr plainly, directly (speaking)

dhe gafos phr available

dhe le phr less adv qualifying verb

dhe les phr useful; interesting

dhe ves phr off, away motion

dhe vlâmya phr to blame

dhe voy phr more adv qualifying verb

dhe well phr better adv qualifying verb

dhe wir phr truly, really

dh’y blegadow phr to his satisfaction

dh'y vreus ev phr in his opinion

dhelergh (adhelergh) adv at the back See also wàr dhelergh

dhyrag tus phr publicly

dialwhedha unlock

diambos adj unconditional; definitive

diamond m diamons diamond (shape, incl in cards)

diank escape

diankva escapism

dianowy yawn

diantel adj precarious

diathves adj immature

diathvetter immaturity

diegrys adj shocked, appalled

diek adj lazy

dielvednans m dielvenansow analysis

dien adj complete, intact

dierbyn[a] encounter

dieth yw phr it’s a pity / shame

diogel adj (rag) secure (against)

diogelhemake sure

diogely (rag) secure, safeguard (against)

diogelyans flogh child protection, safeguarding

dîss m dîcyow die (cube)

dîvya dive (into water)

doctour m doctours doctor (PhD)

dohajë·dh adv/m (in the) afternoon

dollar m dollars dollar

do·mynô m do·mynôs domino

don (degy) carry Pret dug Verbal adj degys

dôpyans doping (in sport)

dor m dorow earth; ground See also dhe’n dor

dorgism dorgîsyow earthquake

dorn m dornow fist; hand; handle

dornla m dornleow handle

dorslynkm dorslyncow landslide

dorydhek adj geographic(al)

dory·dhieth geography

dos (dones) come; arrive Pret deuth Verbal adj devedhys See Key Verb Tables for imperatives and inflected forms used in conditional sentences See also a dheu

dos in eseleth phr join (organization)

dosbartha set (by ability)

doth adj prudent, discreet

dothter discretion, tact

dôtya act like a fool

dour adj/adv careful(ly), scrupulous(ly)

dourwithintensive care

doust dust

dov adj tame

dova tame

down adj deep; profound

downder depth

dowr m dowrow water

dowr mûn m mineral water

dowr tobm Albanek / Wordhonek whisk(e)y

dowr tobm molâ·ss rum

dowrgledhm dowrgledhyow drain (open); canal

dowrlabmm dowrlabmow waterfall

dowror See an Dowror

dowryk tobm m vodka

dowt m dowtys (a2) doubt; *fear (misgiving) See also heb dowt, perthy dowt

dowtya doubt; fear (misgiving)

dôwys m/v choice; alternative (one of a range); choose; elect

dôwysel f dôwysellow menu (options)

dôwysqwartron m dôwysqwartronys constituency

dôwysyans election

draft m draftys draft (document)

draggya drag Verbal adj dreggys

draghtys pl draughts (game)

dragon f dragonas dragon

drâma m drâmaow drama

dramatek adj dramatic

draylya drag (behind)

dre hap phr by chance

dre hast (also gans, in, wàr2) phr hurriedly

dre hedna phr as a result

dre lycklod phr probably

dre rêson prep + noun, verb-noun, infinitive construction, na-clause because (of)

dre vrâs phr generally, mostly, on the whole

dre wall phr by accident

drefen prep + noun, verb-noun, infinitive construction, na-clause because (of)

drehedhes reach, attain

drehevel (derevel) erect, construct

drehevyans (derevyans) m drehevyansow building

dren m dreyn prickle; thorn (loosely)

dres an cûr phr over the limit (drink-driving)

dres ehen phr extremely

dres kynda phr extraordinary

dres musur phr immense

dres natur phr supernatural

dres pùptraphr above all

dreslebmel an lost phr jump the queue

dreys col dreysen brambles

drîvya drive (all senses)

drog predicative adj bad; harmful; *dislike See also an drog, heb drog

drog dens toothache

drog pedn headache

drog-1(2) pref bad

drogatty epilepsy

drogdyby suspect

drogga m droggys drug

drog-gerys adj notorious

drog-goans indigestion

droglabmm droglabmow accident (with bad outcome)

Droglabmow ha Gorothobmow See [Asran] Droglabmow ha Gorothobmow

drogober m drogoberow crime

drogoberor m drogoberoryon criminal

drogpësadj (a2) discontented, dissatisfied (with)

drogura smear (messily)

drokhandla v mistreat Verbal adj drokhendlys but no other inflection

drokhanow notoriety

drolla (daralla) m drollys folktale

drûth adj valuable, precious

dry bring Pret dros Imperatives dro (doroy), drewgh Verbal adj drës

dry (neppëth) dhe gov phr (nebonen) remind (sb of sth)

du adj black Comparative duha See also mis Du

dùcheth m dùchethow duchy

dur steel

durya (ow qwil neppëth) last; survive; persist (in doing sth)

duryans survival

dùstuny m dùstuniow fixed 2nd state evidence; reference (character, past performance etc)

dûta (devar) duty See also wàr dûta

duw m duwow god

duwhan m sorrow, heartache

dy (dhy) adv there motion

dybarow adj/adv peculiar, unparalleled; odd (number); individually

dybarth (dyberth) m dybarthow parting (all senses)

dyber m dybrow saddle

dyberth (dybarth) part (all senses) Pret dybarthas

dyberth in forgh fork (road)

dyberthva separation; distinction; bay (hospital)

dybla·ns adj distinct; definite

dybos adj unimportant

dybrias adj unmarried

dybris adj insignificant

dybyta adj ruthless, relentless

dydhan adj amusing See also meur y dhydhan

dydhana amuse

dydhemedhy divorce

dydhemedhyans divorce

dydoll adj duty-free

dydro adj direct

dydrùssa unpack

dyfen m/v prohibition; forbid, prohibit

dyfëth adj/m barren; desert

dyffrans adj/m different; difference

dyffres protect

dyflas adj nasty, awful

dyflêryas m dyflêrysy deodorant

dyfroth adj no-nonsense

dyfudhor m dyfudhoryon extinguisher

dyfudhy extinguish

dyfun adj awake

dyfuna wake [up]

dyfybrylyor m dyfybrylyoryon defibrillator

dyfygya decline; run out (sth); stall (engine)

dyfygyans decline

dyfyk shortage; deficit

dygabma straighten [out]

dygelmy untie; disconnect

dyghtya treat; manage, deal with

dyghtyans treatment (all senses)

dyghtyor m dyghtyoryon manager

dyghtyor blew m dyghtyoryon hairdresser

dyglevejek adj/m dyglevejygyon disinfectant

dyglon adj/f downhearted; depressed; depression

dyglony lose heart

dygompes adj uneven; anomalous

dygoweth adj solitary, lonely (sb)

dyguf adj unfriendly, unkind

dygwetha shave (body hair)

dyhaval adj (orth) unlike, different (from)

dyhepcor adj indispensable, essential

dyhow adj/m right (as opposed to left)

dyjyn (may be abbreviated to dyj) m dyjydnow dot; decimal point

dylasva f dylasvaow wardrobe

dylâtya v delay, postpone

dylea delete; cancel

dylla (dyllo) v no inflection emit; publish

dyllas m dylajow [set of] clothes

dyllas compes-powes phr smart casual

dyllas neyja m dylajow swimsuit

dyllor m dylloryon publisher

dymensyon m dymensyons dimension

dynamyk adj dynamic

dynar m denerow penny

dynasak adj dynasogyon civil[ian]

dynasy·dhieth citizenship

dynasyth m dynasydhyon citizen

dynerhy send regards

dynyak adj attractive

dyowl (> jowl after an) m dewolow devil See also an jowl

dyppa m dyppys dip (incl edible)

dyrêson adj irrational

dyrêwl adj/m unruly, chaotic; anarchy, chaos

dyrolya unroll

dyrusca peel

dyruskel f dyruskellow peeler

dysableth m dysabledhow disability

dysawor adj unpleasant, nasty

dyscarga unload; discharge

dyscas m dyscasow doctrine; lesson; tuition

dyscler adj blurred; opaque; dim

dyscor m dyscoryon pupil, student (language class etc)

dyscortes adj rude, impolite, brusque

dyscortesy rudeness

dyscos adj unprotected (incl sex); vulnerable (sb)

dyscownt m dyscowntys discount

dyscrewya unscrew

dyscudha uncover; reveal

dysebylya unplug

dysfavera discriminate against

dysfaverans discrimination

dyskerghyans gravity (physics)

dyske·vera (dyskevra) disclose, expose

dysky undress (sb); take off (sth)

dyslel adj disloyal; dishonest

dyslelder disloyalty; dishonesty

dyslen adj unfaithful

dysmailya unwrap

dysobeya disobey

dysobeyans (dysobedyens) disobedience

dysonest adj indecent, improper

dyspêr despair

dysplegya develop

dysplegyans development

dysplêtya unfurl

dysqwedhes show, display, exhibit; appear (come into sight) Imperative dysqwa

dysqwedhyans m dysqwedhyansow show, display, exhibition

dysqwîtha relax (leisure time)

dyssent disagreement

dyssentya disagree

dystaga detach Verbal adj dystegys

dystak adj detached; independent (incl politics)

dystempra upset (sb)

dystowgh adv immediately

dystrôwy destroy

dystrybûtya distribute

dyswil ruin (sb); spoil (sth)

dyth m dythys saying

dyvarra prune

dyvarva shave (face)

dyvarvor m dyvarvoryon shaver (for face)

dyvedhow adj sober

dyvers adj diverse, various

dyveth adj shameless

dyvîcyor (trogentrel) m dyvîcyoryon screwdriver

dyvroa [e]migrate

dyvroyas m dyvroysy migrant

dywel adj invisible

dyweth end (time, sequence) See also wàr an dyweth

dywethyn adj stiff, inflexible

dyweyth adj unemployed

dywodhaf adj unbearable, intolerable

dywostyth adj disobedient, non-compliant

dywredhya uproot; eradicate

dywreydhak adj dewreydhogyon bisexual

dywrosf dywrosow bicycle

dywrosa cycle

dywrosyas m dywrosysy cyclist

dywrosyas jyn m dywrosysy motorcyclist

dywvregh du arms (pair: cradling, embracing etc)

dywyêthek adj bilingual

dywysyans industry

dywysycter enthusiasm, zeal

dywysyk adj enthusiastic, conscientious



Ebrel See mis Ebrel

ebron (eborn) sky

ebyl m ebylyon peg (incl for clothes); plug (electrical, sink etc)

ebylya v plug in

eco·nomy (erbys) economy

economyth m economydhyon economist

edhen m ÿdhyn (edhnow) bird

edrek *regret

efan adj wide (in several dimensions)

efander space (incl outer)


effeth m effêthyow effect

effêthus adj effective

egerel f egerellow opener

egery open Pret egoras Verbal adj egerys = open adj

eglos f eglosyow church

egor m egrow opening

êhel f êhelyow axle; axis

ehen f ehenow kind, sort; species See also dres ehen

el m eleth angel

elastyk elastic

electronek adj/m electronic(s)

elgeth f elgethyow chin

elvednek adj elementary, basic

elven f elvednow element; spark; factor; pl outline (of topic)

elyn adj net

elyn m elydnow elbow; angle

elyn pedrak m elydnow right angle

emôcyon m emôcyons emotion

emôcyonus adj emotional

emôjy m emôjiow emojy

empîr empire

emprour m emprouryon emperor

empydnyon pl brain[s]

ena adv there; then

enawel (teweth) f enawellow storm

enbroans immigration

enbroyas m enbroysy immigrant

encladhva f encladhvaow burial; cemetery

encledhyas m/v burial; funeral; bury

encressya (cressya) v increase

enef (ena) m enevow soul

enebyans See an Enebyans

enep m enebow [sur]face (of object)

enesegy insulate

ene·vieth psychology

enjoya enjoy

enporth m enporthow import

enportha import

entanus (pigus) adj exciting

entanya excite Verbal adj usually entanyes

entra (dhe2, in) enter

entrans (entryng) m entransow entrance

envies adj envious, jealous

envy (avy) envy; enmity; enemy (especially collective) See also perthy envy

enwedhow pl data, information

enys f enesow island


êosyk (êos) m êosygow nightingale

epscop m epscobow bishop

er prep by (the hand, the arm etc)

er y varth phr surprisingly

erba m erbys herb

erbysus adj thrifty, economical

erbysy save (be sparing of)

erbysyon pl savings

ergh snow See also gwil ergh


erghslynkm erghslyncow avalanche

erhy order (sb, sth) Note constructions erhy dhe nebonen (or infixed pron) gwil neppëth and erhy nebonen a wil neppëth and erhy may whrella / na wrella nebonen neppëth = order sb to do / not to do sth

erow f erewy acre

ertach heritage

ertans inheritance

ervira decide (to); conclude Note construction bos ervirys dhe wil neppëth = be determined to do sth

ervirans m erviransow decision; conclusion

ervirus adj decisive, conclusive

e·ryta inherit

escar m eskerens enemy

escarus adj hostile

esedha (sedha) sit [down]

esedhva f esedhvaow lounge; siege

esedhvos m esedhvosow session; eisteddfod

esel m esely limb; member

esel seneth m esely member of parliament (MP)

eseleth membership

eseth f esedhow seat (incl in Parliament) See also a’y eseth

eskelly grehyn bat (animal)

eskyna (war2) mount (horse etc); board (vehicle)

eskyner m eskyneryow lift, elevator

eskynva ramp

eskys f eskyjyow (skyjyow) shoe

eskys slynkresek f eskyjyow skate (for ice skating)

eskys sport f eskyjyow (skyjyow) trainer

esmal enamel

esporth m esporthow export

esportha export

essens m essencys essence

Est See mis Est

establyshya establish

estêmya admire

estêmyans admiration

estrednek adj alien, strange

estren adj/m estrenyon foreign; foreigner

estyll col estyllen shelving

êsy adj easy Comparative êsya

etew m etewy log (for burning)

êthedna steam; vape

êthen steam

eur f euryow hour, time (specific, incl by the clock) See also i’n eur-ma, i’n eur-na

euryador m euryadoryon timetable

euryor m euryorow watch; timer

euth terror

euthvilm euthvilas monster

euthwasm euthwesyon terrorist


euver adj futile

eva drink

eva yêhes phr toast (sb)

evreth adj disabled (sb)

ewl [boos] appetite

ewn adj right, correct See also mos i’n ewn fordh

êwna correct; mend, repair; mark (learner’s work)

êwnans correction; repair; marking (of learner’s work)

êwnder correctness; fairness

ewnhensek adj moral, ethical

ewnranf ewnradnow ration

êwnor conditioner

ewon col ewonen foam, froth

ewrô m ewrôs euro

ewyn m ewynas nail (anatomy); claw

examnacyon m examnacyons examination (incl medical)

examnya examine (incl medically)

exampyl (ensampyl) m examplys example

exampyl kyns m examplys precedent

excepcyon exception

experyens experience

exponencyal adj exponential As attributive adj exponencyal precedes or follows its noun

eylya alternate

eythyn col eythynen gorse


fâcya pretend

fakel f faclow flare; inflammation

fakel mellow arthritis

falhas mow

falja split Verbal adj feljys

fâls m fâljow split

fâls predicative adj false

fâls-1 pref false

fancy fancy; fantasy

fara conduct

fardel m fardellow package; pl luggage, baggage

fashyst m fashystyon fascist

fâss m fâssow face

fassyon m fassyons fashion (all senses)

fassyonus adj fashionable

fast adj firmly fixed; stable; permanent

fast'heans confirmation

fastya fasten Verbal adj festys

fatla genes? phr how are you?

fav col faven beans

fav pebys col baked beans

faverans specyal treat

faverus adj favourable

favour favour; personal appearance

fedna overflow

fekyl predicative adj insincere

fekyl-1 pref insincere

fekyl-cher insincerity, hypocrisy

fel adj crafty

felshyp friendship; squad (football); team (cricket); cast (play)

fenester f fenestry window

feno·menon m feno·mena phenomenon

fenten f fentydnyow spring (water); fountain

fentenva f fentenvaow spa

fer m feryow fair (fun, trade)

fers adj fierce

fest adv very Precedes or follows its adj

fest m festyow feast; festival (secular)

feth m fêthyow fact

fetha defeat

fevyr m fevyrs fever

fia [dhe'n fo] phr flee

fienasow pl fretting, anxiety

fin adj fine, delicate

fin m fînyow limit (physical, abstract); pl extent

finweth limit (abstract); final(e)

finweth toth speed limit

flàm m flabmow flame

flêrya stink

flogh m flehes child

flogh wydn m flehes gwydn child

floghgovior m floghgovioryon childminder

floghva f floghvaow nursery, crèche

floren f florednow lock

floren crog f florednow padlock

floren kesnyver f florednow combination lock

flour adj/m flourys finest, unequalled; flower

flourys gwëdh pl blossom

flows nonsense

flû influenza, flu

flûr m flûrys deck (ship)

flyckra flicker

flyrtya flirt

foesyk m foesygyon fugitive; refugee

fol adj/m felyon fool(ish)

folednyk f folenygow leaflet

folen f folednow page

fong m fongow fungus

fônow pedn pl headphones

fordh f fordhow way; road See also [in] neb fordh

fordh adro· f fordhow roundabout (traffic)

forgh pl fergh (ferhy) fork

form f formys form

formya form, create

forn f fornow oven; stove

fors force (incl physics) See also na fors

forsâkya abandon

forùm m fora forum

fos f fosow wall

fôtôgrafya photograph

fowt m fowtys lack; mistake

fowt perthyans impatience

fram m framyow frame

framya frame

franchys freedom, liberty; franchise

frank adj free

franklondyor m franklondyoryon smuggler

frappya strike (blow)

fraws fraud

frêga tear up, shred

fresk adj fresh

freth adj vigorous, energetic

frethter vigour, energy

fria free

fria fry

frobma get agitated

frobmans agitation

frodn f frodnow restraint; bridle; brake

frodna restrain, curb; brake

front m frontys front (political, weather)

frony sniff; snort

fros m frosow flow, current, stream

frôsa gush

frôsek adj fluent

frôsus adj effusive

frût m frûtys fruit

fùj fudge

fùndya found

fùndyans institute, institution

fur adj wise, sensible, prudent

furneth wisdom, prudence

furv See an Furv Scrifys Savonek

furvel f furvellow formula

furvlenf furvlednow form (to fill in)

furvus adj formal

furvwiradj virtual

furvyans format

fusyk adj lucky, fortunate

fycsyon fiction

fydhyador m fydhyadoryon trustee

fydhyans reliance; trust (legal) See also an Fydhyans Kenedhlek

fyges col fygesen figs; dried fruit (raisins, sultanas, currants)

fygùr m fygùrs figure (all senses)

fygùratyf adj figurative

fylgeth soot

fylgh raf f fylghyow strimmer

fyllel (a2, dhe2) fail (to)

fylm m fylmys film (photography, cinema)

fylmya film

fysek medicine (remedy); physics

fysky rush, dash

fysla fuss; fidget

fystena hurry

fyt m fyttys match (sport)

fytty adj appropriate, suitable


galeth f galethow galaxy

gallon m gallons gallon

gallos m/v + verb-noun power; ability; can, may, be able to See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

galosek adj powerful

galow m galowow call; invitation

galwans vocation, occupation, profession

galwansek adj vocational

galwansus adj professional

gam game (all senses)

ganow m ganowow mouth

gans / warbydn an howl phr clockwise / anti-clockwise

gans gorhemydnow / gor[he]mynadow a'n gwella (gwelha) phr best regards

gans hedna phr thereupon; moreover

garlont m garlontow garland, wreath

garm f garmow call, cry (incl of animal); slogan

garnsy m garnsys jersey

garnsy cùgol m garnsys hoodie

garow adj rough, harsh; violent

garowder roughness, harshness; violence

garr f garrow leg

garren f garednow stem, stalk

garth gwary m garthow playground

gasa leave; let; let go Note construction gasa nebonen dhe wil neppëth = let sb do sth Imperative gesowgh Verbal adj gesys

gasa dhe godha phr drop

gasa dhe goll phr neglect

gasa mes phr leave out, omit

gass gas See also heb gass

gava (neppëth dhe nebonen) forgive (sb for sth) Verbal adj gyvys

gavar f gever (gyfras) goat See also an Avar

gawlak adj (wàr2) astride, straddling

gay adj gay (all senses)

gedlyver m gedlyvrow guidebook

gedya guide

gedyor m gedyoryon guide

geler f gelerow coffin

gell adj brown (light)

gelwel call; invite

genesygeth birth

genesyk adj genesygyon native; innate, inherent

Genver See mis Genver

genydnek adj genetic

genyn m genydnow gene

genys See bos genys

ger m geryow word; utterance See also gorra in geryow

gerdardhyans etymology

gerlyver m gerlyvrow dictionary

gerva f gervaow vocabulary; glossary

ges joke, joking See also gwil ges a2

geseth irony

gesus adj facetious, satirical

gesya joke

gesyor m gesyoryon comedian

gevell m gevellas twin See also an Evellas

gis m gîsyow manner, style

gis screfa m gîsyow style (writing)

gladn f gladnow bank (river, lake etc)

gladn an mor seaside

gladn gales hard shoulder (motorway)

glân adj/adv clean; with adj completely As adv glân follows its adj

glanheclean; launder (incl money); wipe (to clean)

glanyth adj clean-and-neat; hygienic

glanythter hygiene

glas adj blue, green, grey (focus on intensity)b

glasrudh ‖ (pùrpur) adj purple, violet

glaw rain See also gwil glaw

glawjym glawjiow shelter (from rain: bus etc)

glawlenf glawlednow umbrella (for rain)

glëb adj wet, moist, damp

glëbor wet, moisture, damp

glebya wet, moisten, dampen

glehy soak

glena (orth, dhe2) cling, stick (to)

glesyn m glesydnow lawn; green (bowling, golf)

glin m glinyow knee

glory glory

gloryùs adj glorious

glow coal

glow predn charcoal

glus m glue; paste; purée

glus gwethyn latex

glus knias chewing gum

glusa glue

glûten gluten

glûth dew; condensation


glyttra glitter

gnas (nas) nature, quality, character

gober m gobrow wage(s), salary; fee

gobonya jog (run slowly)

gobrena hire, rent

gobrys dâ phr well paid

gocky adj silly, stupid, absurd

gockyneth silliness, stupidity, absurdity

goderry interrupt (sth) Pret godorras

godh (go’dhor ‖) m godhas mole (animal)

Godhalek Gaelic (languages: Irish, Scottish, Manx)

godhevel (godhaf) tolerate

godhevyans tolerance

godhvos m/v + verb-noun know(ledge); know how to See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

godhvos convedhes phr understand

godn m godnys gun

godnor m gonoryon gunman

godolhyn lent'hem godolhydnow speed bump

godra milk

godra·bm cramp

godrega (in) stay (in a place for business or pleasure)

godros m/v threat(en)

godrosladrans blackmail

godroth bùrm yeast extract

gogell f gogellow pulpit; cell (biology)

goheles avoid

gohelus adj evasive

gol m gôlyow goal (football etc)

goledna claim (sth as entitlement)

golegy edit

goles bottom, base (of sth); sole (shoe)

golf golf

golghva f golghvaow bathroom

golghva kerry f golghvaow car wash

golhy wash

golia wound

gologhyas m golohysy worshipper

gologva f gologvaow outlook; perspective; scene (play, film)

golohy worship

golok sight (seeing, thing seen); look (act of looking)

golok scav glance

golok vian glimpse

golow adj/m golowys bright; light, glow

golow trafyk m golowys traffic light

golowboynt m golowboyntys highlight

golowbren m golowbrednyer lamp post

golowjy m golowjiow lighthouse

golowy light; glow

golowyn X m golowydnow X-ray

golsowes (goslowes) (orth, dhe2) listen (to)

golvan m golvanas sparrow

goly m goliow wound

golya sail

gôlya celebrate (birthday, anniversary etc)

golyth m golythyon roast meat

golyth Tùrkek m golythyon kebab

gon m gonow gown, robe

gonys m/v cultivation; working (at sth); cultivate Inflected stem gonedh-

gonys has phr sow seed

gonysegeth culture

goodh f godhow goose

gool m golyow festival

gool m & f golyow sail

gool ilow m golyow concert

gool ilow brâs m golyow music festival

goos blood

gooth pride (negative), arrogance

gooth mûn f gwythy lode 

gora hay

gorbeskys adj obese

gordednva f gordenvaow overdraft

gordhuwher adv/m (in the) evening

gordhylla (gordhyllo) fire, sack (from job)

gorfedna finish

gorgevren f gorgevrednyon hyperlink

gorhal m gorholyon ship

gorhanus adj enchanting

gorhebmyn m/v gorhemydnow bid(ding), command Pret gorhemydnys See also gans gorhemydnow a'n gwella

gorhebmyn medhek prescription

gorhemynadow See gans gorhemynadow a'n gwella

gorher m gorheryow cover, lid

gorheras cladding

gorhery cover (with sth for the purpose: lid, upholstery etc)

gorholeth demand

gorholus adj demanding, challenging

gorlanwes luxury

gorlanwesek adj luxurious

gorlywa exaggerate

gorm adj brown (dark)

gormola m gormolys praise

gormynadow See gans gormynadow a'n gwella

gorotham m gorothobmow emergency

gorour m gorwer hero

gorow adj male; masculine (grammar)

gorra put, place; take, send Note construction gorra A in le B = replace A with B, substitute B for A

gorra dhe dhyscans phr educate

gorra dhe wil phr apply (process etc)

gorra in arhow phr place on deposit

gorra in charj dhe2 phr entrust to

gorra in geryow phr express (in words)

gorra meth in phr embarrass

gorra moy dhe2 phr supplement

gorra own in phr frighten, scare

gorra scruth in phr horrify, shock

gorra tan in phr set alight

gorra with phr (a2, dhe2) take care (of, to)

gorras m gorrasow lift (in vehicle)

gorsaf m gorsavow station Note 2nd state orsaf, orsavow

gorth-1(2) pref anti-, counter-

gortheby answer, reply, respond; correspond (sth to sth)

gortheneby confront; oppose

Gortheren See mis Gortheren

gorthsaf resistance (to proposal, policy etc)

gorthviotyk adj/m gorthviotygyon antibiotic

gorth-Yêdho·wieth f anti-semitism

gorthyp m gorthebow answer, reply, response

gortos wait (for) Imperative gorta

gorvarhas f gorvarhasow supermarket

gorwel horizon

goskes m goskesow shelter (all senses)

goskesy shelter

gostyth adj obedient, compliant

gostythter obedience, compliance

gothys adj proud (negative), arrogant

goubman seaweed

gour m gwer man (as opposed to woman); husband

gour ambosys m gwer fiancé

gov See an Gov

govenek *hope

gover m goverow brook, stream

governa govern, run (Cornwall, town etc)

governans m governansow government

govyn m/v enquiry; request, ask (for); charge (amount) Note constructions govyn orth nebonen mar = ask sb if / whether, govyn neppëth orth nebonen = ask sb for sth, govyn orth nebonen gwil neppëth = ask sb to do sth

govynador m govynadoryon questionnaire

govynadow enquiry; request, application

govynva enquiry desk, information point

gow adj/m false (lying); lie(s) See also heb wow

gow gwir paradox

gowdhan m gowdhanas moth

gowek adj gowygyon liar

gowleverel [tell a] lie Verb adj gowleverys but no other inflection

gôy digest

gradh m gradhow grade; degree (university)

gradhva scale

graf m grafow graph

grahell f grahellow heap, pile

grahella heap, pile

gràm m gramow gram

gramer grammar

grappa m grappys grape

grâss m grassow (a2, rag) grace; thanks (for)

grassyùs adj gracious

grastal m grastalyow gratuity, tip

grava clevyon  m gravadhow stretcher

grava ros m gravadhow wheelbarrow

gravyans carving (artistic); engraving

gre f greyow herd, flock

gre sodhogyl official status

grêf m grêvys grief

greun col greunen grains; berries

greun olew col greunen olives

greunvooscereal (incl for breakfast)

grêvya grieve tr

grolyak adj grolyogyon whinger

gromercy [dhis / dhe why] phr (a2, rag) thank you (for) Note construction gromercy dhis ha ty dhe wil neppëth + verb-noun = thank you for doing sth

gromyal growl; rumble

groweth See a’y wroweth

grownd ground (especially figuratively)

growndya base (argument, assumption etc)

growedha (gorwedha) lie [down] Note 2nd state wrowedha

growyn col growynen gravel

grug col heather

grugys m grugysow belt; zone Note 2nd state wrugys, wrugysow

grugys sawder m grugysow safety belt; life-belt

gùhy col gùhien wasps

gùlan (gwylan) f gùlanas [sea]gull

gûn f gonyow down[land], moor[land]

gùstel m gùstlow riot

gùsygen f gùsygednow bladder; blister; black pudding

gùsygen air f gùsygednow balloon (toy)

gwacter emptiness, void; vacuum

gwadn adj weak; dim (light)

gwadnrêwlya mismanage Verbal adj gwadnrêwlys but no other inflection

gwag adj empty, vacant; hungry (between meals)

gwain m gwains gain, profit

gwainya gain; win (incl game)

gwaityans expectation


gwana pierce Verbal adj gwenys

gwanas m gwanasow puncture; piercing

gwander weakness

gwandra wander; ramble

gwadnheweaken; dim (light)

gwall See dre wall

gwara goods (bought and sold)

gwarek f gwaregow bow; arch

gwarek an glaw rainbow

gwarek wysk f gwaregow coathanger

gwardya guard

gwariel f gwariellow toy

gwarior m gwarioryon player (incl actor)

gwarnya warn

gwarnyans m gwarnyansow warning; notice (upcoming event)

gwarr f gwarrow neck (nape); shoulders (loosely)

gwartha adj/m gwarthavyon upper; top

gwarthek col cattle (typically cows)

gwarthevya predominate

gwarthowl f gwarthowlow stirrup

gwary m/v gwariow play (incl in theatre); game

gwary bord m gwariow board game

gwary dall m gwariow raffle

gwary dauns m gwariow dance (event)

gwary fol m gwariow farce (incl figuratively)

gwary ilow m gwariow musical

gwary kenys m gwariow opera

gwary mil dabm m gwariow jigsaw puzzle

gwary mir m gwariow spectacle (entertainment)

gwary wàr eryow phr pun[ning], play on words

gwaryjy m gwarijiow theatre (indoor)

gwaryva f gwaryvaow stage (theatre)

gwas m gwesyon assistant (shop etc); waiter; fellow, chap, guy

gwasca press, squeeze Verbal adj gweskys

gwascas pressure

gwask press (incl media)

gwastas adj level

gwastell f gwastellow wafer

gwâv m gwavow winter

gwâvgùsca hibernate

gway m gwayow move[ment], motion

gwaya move (physically)

gwaya-mircinema (films)

gwaynten spring (season)

gweder m gwedrow glass

gweder aspias m gwedrow telescope

gweder lyw m gwedrow stained glass

gweder meras m gwedrow mirror

gwëdh col gwedhen trees

gwedhyl m gwedhylyow balance (on account)

gwëdhpoll chess

gwedhen-ven m gwedhen-venow [tree] trunk

gwedhow adj widowed

gwedhra wither

gwedren f gwedrednow glass (for drinking)

gwel sight (sth seen) See also mos mes a wel

gwel m gwelyow field (open)

gwelen f gwelyny stick, rod; cue (for pool etc)

gwelen debry f gwelyny chopstick

gwelen eva f gwelyny straw (for drinking)

gweles see

gweljow (gwelsow) bian pl scissors

gwell adj better

gwella (gwelha) adj best See also an gwella oll ganso

gwellhe ‖ (gwella) improve

gwels col gwelsen grass

gwely m gweliow bed

gwely dëdh m gweliow couch, settee, sofa

gwèn anus

Gwener See de Gwener

gwengel wriggle, squirm

gwenogen f gwenogednow wart

gwenogen troos f gwenogednow verruca

gwednal (gwenhal) f gwenyly swallow (bird); shuttle[cock]

gwenwharthm gwenwharthow grin

gwenwherthyn grin

gwenyn col gwenenen bees

gwer adj green

Gwer (Gwesyon, Mebyon) pl Gents (toilet)

gweres m/v (orth) help (with) Note construction gweres nebonen ow qwil neppëth = help sb to do sth See also ry gweres dhe2

gweres mona subsidy

gweresor m gweresoryon helper

gwerghsys virginity

gwerhes See an Werhes

gwern f gwernow mast (incl for communication)

gwerrya fight a war

gwerryans m gwerryansow war[fare]

gwers f gwersyow verse

gwerth sale

gwertha sell

gwerthor m gwerthoryon seller; salesman

gweryn folk

gwerynor m gwerynoryon peasant; worker (proletarian); pawn (chess)

gweskel beat, strike; hit (target)

gwestva hospitality; guest room

gwestym gwestiow guest house

gwetha (gwitha) (rag) keep, preserve, protect (from) 

gwethhe ‖ (gwetha intr only) worsen; aggravate

gwethyas m gwethysy guard; carer

gwethyas âls m gwethysy coastguard

gwethyas cres m gwethysy police officer

gwethyas sawder m gwethysy security guard

gwethyas train m gwethysy train manager

gwethyas treth m gwethysy lifeguard (on beach)

gwethyn adj supple, flexible; tough (meat)

gwetyas expect; take care to

gwevya wave (hand etc); wag (tail)

gwewen f gwewednow heel (foot, shoe)

gwewss m gwessyow lip

gweyth m gweythyow work

gweytha exploit (sth); operate (sth)

gweythor m gweythoryon worker

gweythor chy m gweythoryon construction worker

gweythor plobm m gweythoryon plumber

gweythva gweythvaow factory; workplace

gwia weave; wind (river, road etc)

gwia wàr najedhow phr knit

gwias web (incl internet); textile, fabric

gwiasva f gwiasvaow website

gwibya dart; sprint

gwihal squeak, squeal; creak

gwil (gul) make; do  Note constructions ev a wra gwil neppëth = he will do sth, he is going to do sth and gwil dhe nebonen gwil neppëth = make sb do sth See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

gwil devnyth a2 phr utilize, make use of

gwil ergh phr snow verb

gwil ges a2 phr make fun of

gwil glaw phr rain verb

gwil marthùjyon phr be amazed

gwil mencyon a2 phr mention verb

gwil powes phr have a rest

gwil revrons dhe2 phr respect (sb)

gwil sin phr gesture verb

gwil vry a2 phr heed; respect (sb, sth)

gwil warlergh phr imitate

gwil gwella (gwelha) galla (gwil oll y ehen) phr do one’s best

gwil sens phr make sense

gwin wine

gwir adj/m gwiryow (dhe2) true, authentic; real; right (to) See also an gwir a leverta, dhe wir, in gwir

gwir pryntya copyright

gwiryon adj honest, sincere; innocent

gwiryoneth (gwrioneth) truth; honesty; reality See also in gwrioneth

gwith custody; care (protective) See also gorra with, kebmer with, kemeres with a2

gwithtym gwithtiow museum

gwithva store; ward (hospital)

gwlân col wool

gwlân coton col cotton wool

gwlanek adj/m gwlanegyon woollen; jumper, pullover

gwlas f gwlasow country, land (political)

gwlasegeth politics (national, local)

gwlasegor m gwlasegoryon politician

gwlasek adj political (national, local)

gwlasek-kewaradj politically correct

gwragh f gwrahas witch; woodlouse

gwreck m gwreckys wreck

gwredhek adj original

gwredhen f gwredhyow root

gwreg f gwrageth wife

gwres See meur y wres

gwresak adj ardent, fervent

gwrians activity

gwrias sew

gwrîhon col gwrihonen sparks

gwrydnya (orth; in) grapple (with); squeeze, squash (into)

gwrÿth actions, performance

gwybes col gwybesen gnats, midges, mosquitos

gwybessa v no inflection waste time

gwycor m gwycoryon trader, dealer (legal, illegal)

gwydn adj white

gwydn y vÿs phr lucky, fortunate

Gwydngala See mis Gwydngala

gwydnrudh ‖ (pynk) adj pink

gwydnyk adj pale

gwylanel f gwylanellow glider

gwylcos m gwylcosow jungle

gwylfos wilderness

gwyls adj wild

gwynder whiteness; paleness

gwynkya wink

gwyns m gwynsow wind

gwynsak adj windy

gwysca dress (sb); put on (sth)

gwyscas m gwyscosow layer; outfit

gwysk costume, attire

gwyskva f gwyskvaow changing room

gwystel m gwystlow hostage; bet

gwystla bet

gwythres m gwythresow action; function

gwythres ûsys m gwythresow routine

gwythresa action, implement; function

gwythresek adj gwythresegyon active; practical

gwythresor m gwythresoryon activist; executive (business)

gwythy col gwythien veins

gwythy brâs col gwythien vrâs arteries

gwyver m gwyvrow wire (material, individual)

gwyw adj suitable

gwyw dhe nôtya phr newsworthy

gwywder suitability

gwywer m gwyweras squirrel

gyew col gyewen tendons; gristle

gyga-1 pref giga-

gyttern (gyttren) m gytterns guitar

gyvyans forgiveness


ha + noun / pron intredhans phr including

ha browsyon bara in y gerhyn phr in breadcrumbs

ha kestew in y gerhyn phr in batter

ha pella (pelha) phr what’s more, furthermore

hacter ugliness; cruelty

hag erel (h.e.) phr et cetera (etc)

hager [y semlant] phr ugly Comparative hackra

hager-2 pref nasty

hager-viaj phr a dreadful business

halôinterj hello (surprise, answering phone)

hâlya haul

hanaf m hanavow cup

Hanaf an Bÿs The World Cup

hanaf hir m hanavow mug (coffee, tea etc)

hanaja sigh; groan; murmur

hanajen f hanajednow sigh; groan; murmur

handla handle (all senses) Verbal adj hendlys

haneth adv tonight, this evening

hanow m henwyn name; reputation See also meur y hanow

hanow crev m henwyn noun

hanow dâ fame

hanow gwadn m henwyn adjective

hans See in hans dhe2

hanter-dëdh midday

hanter-nos midnight

hanter-our m hanter-ourys half hour

hanvos m/v exist(ence)

hanwans nomination

hap See dre hap

hapnya (happya) happen (especially by chance)

harbereth gwlasek political asylum

hardh adj confident, competent (action)

hardha v no verbal adj bark

hardhva barking

harlych (hardlych) adv strictly, precisely

harp m harpys harp

has col hasen seeds; semen

hash See [sygen] hash

hasletm haslettys contraceptive (barrier)

hast See dre hast

hâtya hate

hâv m havow summer 

haval adj (dhe2) like, similar (to)

havyas m havysy summer visitor

havyas campya m havysy camper

hawnsel breakfast

hayl estuary

heb awhê·r phr readily, willingly

heb bry phr invalid

heb comfort (confort) phr uncomfortable (sth)

heb côwsel a2 phr not to mention

heb danjer phr without hesitation

heb dowt phr without doubt, certainly

heb drog phr innocent (conduct)

heb gass phr still (bottled water)

heb hedhy phr constant(ly)

heb iny phr willingly

heb ken phr without cause, for no reason

heb kespar phr single (status)

heb les vëth phr useless

heb let phr immediately

heb mar [na martesen] phr without doubt, of course

heb nàm phr flawless(ly)

heb otham phr unnecessary, unnecessarily

heb perthynas phr irrelevant

heb prevyans phr inexperienced

heb reckna phr excluding

heb teythy specyal phr mediocre

heb wow phr without doubt

hedhes reach (as far as); hand (sth to sb)

hedhon adj portable

hedhy stop (action, motion) See also heb hedhy

hedhyw adv today

hedorr adj fragile

Hedra See mis Hedra

hegar adj amiable

hegar dhe ûsyor phr user-friendly

hel adj generous, hospitable

hel m helow hall

helgh hunt

helghya hunt

hèn yw (h.y.) phr that is (i.e.)

hèn yw dhe leverel phr that is to say

hèn yw dhe styrya phr namely

henwhedhel m henwhedhlow legend

hens m hensy lane (motorway)

hens horn m hensy railway

hens tira m hensy runway

hensador m hensadoryon guidebook

hensador lorednek m hensadoryon satnav

henwel name

hepcor forgo, do without

herdhya push, shove, thrust

hern col hernen pilchards

hern gwydn col hernen wydn herrings

hern ôpyn col hernen kippers

hernes gear, equipment; harness

hernessya equip; harness

herwyth bodh adv optional(ly)

herwyth lojyk prep logically

herwyth sians prep arbitrary, arbitrarily

hës length

hes f hesow flock (birds); swarm; shoal (fish)

heskedna saw

hesken f heskednow saw (tool)


hevelep (hevelepter) likeness, similarity

hevelly (dhe2) seem, appear; liken (to)

hevleny adv this year

hewel adj visible

hewil (hewul) adj feasible, practical

hil f hilyow race (ethnic)

hi·lieth racism

hir adj long

hirbedrak adj oblong 

hirder length; height, stature

hireth longing; loneliness; homesickness; nostalgia

hirethek adj lonely; homesick; nostalgic

hirgornm hirgern trumpet

hirgrènadj oval


hobba m hobbys hobby

hockya hesitate

hockya in y gows phr stutter, stammer

hockyans hesitation

hôk m hôkys hawk

hôk caryn m hôkys vulture

holan m holanow salt

holanek adj salty

holergh adj late (in time, after time due)

holya (folya) follow

holyor m holyoryon follower

honensys identity

honenus adj selfish

honenuster selfishness

hoos m heyjy duck

hora f horys prostitute

hordh See an Hordh

hormôn m hormônow hormone

horn m hern iron

hornel f hornellow iron (for clothes)

ho·roscôp m horoscôpow horoscope

hos adj hoarse

hot (hat) m hottys hat 

howl sun; sunlight See also gans / warbydn an howl

howlek adj sunny; solar

howl-lenf howl-lednow sun umbrella


howlsedhas sunset

hùbbadùllya din, racket (noise)

hudor m hudoryon magician

hulla nightmare

hùmbrank lead, escort Pret hùmbroncas Verbal adj hùmbrynkys

hùmbrynkyas m hùmbrynkysy leader

hûmour humour

hunek adj hunegyon sleepy

hunros m hunrosow dream

hunrosa dream

hùrtya hurt (sb) or intr

hus magic

hyga tease; cheat

hyk m hycow hiccup

hympna m hympnys hymn

Hyndû adj/m Hyndûs Hindu

Hyndû·yieth Hinduism



iconek adj iconic

idhyow col idhyowen ivy

idn adj narrow (in several dimensions)

idol m idols idol (all senses)

iffarn m iffarnow hell

iffarnak adj hellish

igam-ogamadv zigzag

imach m imajys statue; image

i·majery m sculpture; imagery

imûneth m imûnedhow immunity

i'n contrary part phr on the contrary, on the other hand (introducing opposite consideration)

i'n côstys-ma phr in these parts, around here

i'n eur-ma phr now

i'n eur-na (nena) phr then

i'n gwella (gwelha) prës phr fortunately

i'n gwetha prës phr unfortunately

i'n kettermyn phr at the same time

i'n mên-termyn phr meanwhile

i'n tor'-ma phr at this moment

i'n tor'-na phr at that moment

in aray an abecedary phr in alphabetical order

in bàn (badn) phr up motion; upstairs motion

in chy (in tre) phr at home 

in cres prep in / into the middle of

in dadn gel phr secret(ly)

in dadn scoos prep under the auspices of

in dadn vewgh prep sponsored by

in danjer prep subject to

in despît (spit) dhe2 despite, in spite of

in ewn angùs phr in agony

in gwir phr indeed

in gwrioneth phr actually, in fact

in hans dhe2 prep beyond

in kerdh phr away motion

in kerhyn prep + poss pron all around

in ketelma phr in the same way

in kever prep + poss pron in relation to, concerning, about

in le prep + noun, poss pron in le a2 prep + dem pron / verb-noun instead of

[in] mes phr out[side] motion

[in] mes a2 prep out of motion

[in] mesk prep among

in neb câss phr in any case, anyway, anyhow

[in] neb fordh (maner) phr somehow

in neb le (plâss) phr somewhere

in nes phr near position (adverb & preposition)

in ober phr in fact

in ogas prep + poss pron near, close to position

in poynt dâ phr fit, in good shape

in pùb le (plâss) phr everywhere

in (wàr2) rag phr forwards; fast (clock)

in (wàr2) udn làm phr in next to no time

in udn rew phr in a row, one after an another

inclynya pedn phr nod

indella adv like that

indella re bo phr so be it

indelma adv like this

informatek IT, ICT

inia urge; insist Note constructions inia wàr nebonen gwil neppëth = urge sb to do sth, inia nebonen dhe wil neppëth = insist that sb does sth

iniadow urging; insistence

injynor m injynoryon engineer

injyno·rieth engineering

ink ink

inkyl glena sticky tape

inspîrya inspire

installya instal (all senses)

interpretacyon m interpretacyons interpretation

intertainya entertain (hospitality, amusement)

inwe·dh adv also, too, even

iredy (eredy) adv indeed

is-1 pref sub-, vice-

iscargm iscargow download

iscarga download

is-dôwysyans by-election

isel adj low Comparative isella (iselha)

iselbris adj cheap


Islâ·m Islam

Islâmek adj Islamic

islînya underline

ispanm ispadnow lining

ispoyntm ispoyntys minimum

ispoyntek adj minimum; minimal

istory (story) m istorys history; story

istyna extend; pass (sth to sb)

istynans (istynyans) m istynansow extension; supplement (document, magazine)



jag m jaggys jolt; shock (electric)

jèl m jelys gel

jerkyn m jerkyns jacket

jerkyn sawder m jerkyns life jacket

Jesu Crist Jesus Christ

jîns pl jeans

jôker m jôkers joker

jolyf adj cheerful

jolyfter cheerfulness

jorna m jornys day (as frame for events)

jornalyst m jornalystyon journalist

Jory Pùb Ober phr handyman

jowal (jewal) m jowelys jewel

jûbylê m jûbylês jubilee

jùglya juggle

jùj m jùjys judge

jùjment m jùjmentys judgment

jùjya judge

jùnya join, connect

jùnyans dywyver wireless connection, WiFi

jùst adj just

jùstyfia justify

jùstys m jùstyssyow justice; magistrate

jylofer m jylofers carnation

jyn m jynys machine; engine, motor

jyn crâna m jynys crane (machine)

jyn dywros m jynys motorcycle

jyn êthen m jynys steam engine

jyn falhas m jynys lawnmower

jyn ilow m jynys player

jyn sarchya m jynys search engine

jyn tedna m jynys tractor

jyn tôknys m jynys ticket machine

jynevra gin

jynjym jynjiow engine house

jy·njyber ginger


jynweythek adj mechanical

jynweythor m jynweythoryon mechanic

jynyk m jynygow device, gadget



ke m keow fence; hedge

keas fenester m keasow shutter

keber f kebryow beam (wood, metal)

kebmer with phr take care imperative

kebmyn adj common; ordinary; general

kebmysk mix[ture], blend; miscellany

kedhow mustard

kedry·dn row (quarrel)

kef m kefyon stump (tree)

kefnys col kefnysen spiders

kefrës adv also, too, even

kefrysek adj federal

kefrysyans alliance; [con]federation

kegy cook Verbal adj kegys but no other inflection

kegyn f kegynow kitchen

kegy·nieth cooking; cuisine

kegynor m kegynoryon chef

kehaval adj (ha) equal (to)

kehavalyans m kehavalyansow equation

keher[yn] m keherydnow muscle

kel See in dadn gel

keles hide, conceal

kelgh m kelhow circle, ring; sphere; cycle; circuit; hoop

kelghlyther m kelghlytherow circular, newsletter

kelghrester f kelghrestry rota

kelghtrof kelghtroyow orbit; lap (pitch, track); round (doctor, tradesman)

kell f kellow cell (for prisoner etc)

kelly lose; miss (bus etc) Pret collas See also ow kelly

kellyn scum (floating, incl oil)

kelmy tie, bind Pret colmas

kelmys ganso phr related, connected

kelscrefa encrypt

Kelt m Keltyon Celt

Keltek adj Celtic

kelyn col kelynen holly

kelyon col kelyonen flies

Kembrek Welsh (language)

kemeneth f kemenethow (kemenedhow) community

kemeres take; receive Imperative kebmer

kemeres (tedna) dhyworth phr subtract / deduct from

kemeres in kerdh phr (dhyworth) take away (from)

kemeres in prest phr borrow (money)

kemeres le phr replace (A taking the place of B)

kemeres meth phr (a2) be ashamed (of), be embarrassed (by)

kemeres own phr (a2) be afraid (of)

kemeres preder phr (a2) consider (sth)

kemeres pyta orth phr pity verb

kemeres radn phr (in) take part (in)

kemeres scruth phr be horrified / shocked

kemeres tan phr catch fire

kemeres with a2 phr protect, watch (weight etc)

kemerys yn frâs gans phr impressed by

kempedna tidy

kempen adj neat-and-tidy; compact

kempensys neatness, tidiness

kemunessa (kemenessa) v no inflection communicate

kemusur adj symmetrical

kemyk m kemygyon chemical

kemyscor m kemyscoryon mixer

kemysky mix, blend; confuse (sth) Pret kemyscas

kemysky y honen in phr get involved in

ken attributive adj/adv other, else (indefinite); otherwise Note that ken as adj precedes a noun or numeral, follows a pron See also na hen

ken cause (incl legal proceedings) See also heb ken

ken maner phr alternative adj

kenak col kenogen boggy ground (marked by reeds) 

kenderow m kenderewy cousin (male)

kendon debt; obligation; liability (legal, financial) Note construction bos in kendon rag = owe

kenedhel f kenedhlow generation; nation (fixed phrases only)

kenedhlek (na·cyonal) adj national

kenen f kenednow film (incl for wrapping)

kenen lagas f kenednow cataract

kenertha boost; encourage

kenreydhak adj kenreydhogyon heterosexual

kenseth m kensedhow lobby

kenter f kentrow nail; spike

kentrevak m kentrevogyon neighbour

kentrevogeth neighbourhood

kentrewy nail

kenwerth trade, commerce

kenwertha trade

kenwes m kenwesow feast

kenyn ewynak col garlic

kenytherow f kenytherewy cousin (female)

kepa·r ha prep like

ker adj dear (all senses) Comparative kerha

kerdh walk[ing] See also in kerdh

kerdhes walk

kerdhfôn ‖ (clapgûth ‖) m kerdhfônow mobile [phone]

kerdhor m kerdhoryon walker; pedestrian

keredhy reproach

kerenjedhek adj affectionate

kerensa love, affection

kerensa an bobel popularity

keres col keresen cherries

kereth reproach

kergh col oats

kerhes fetch, bring

kerhydna surround

kerhydneth m kerhynedhow environment

kerhyn See in kerhyn

Kernow m Kernowyon Cornishman

Kernowek adj/m Cornish (incl language, optionally preceded by an) As adj often replaced by a Gernow

kert m kertys cart

kert adrëv m kertys trailer (vehicle)

kert jyn m kertys lorry, truck (road)

kertyk m kertygow trolley (supermarket, airport, hospital etc)

kervya carve

kesassoylyans compromise

keschaunj exchange, swap

keschaunjya exchange, swap

kescodhevyans commiseration, sympathy

kescowethyans m kescowethyansow partnership; relationship, relations

kescows conversation, dialogue

kescùssulyans m kescùssulyansow conference

keser col keseren hail

kesgwlasek adj international

kes'hens m kes’hensy junction (motorway etc)

keskerdhes go in procession; march

keskerth procession; march

keslînek adj parallel


kesobery co-operate

kesordna co-ordinate

kespar m & f kesparow partner (in relationship) See also heb kespar

kesparthek adj reciprocal, mutual

kesplottya v plot, conspire

kespos balance, equilibrium

kesposa balance (sth)

kesrosweyth See an Kesrosweyth

kesscrefa (gans) correspond

kessedhek m kessedhegyon committee

kessenyans harmony; consistency

kesson adj/m kessonyow harmonious; consistent; consonant

kesstrif m kesstrîfow competition, contest

kesstrîvya compete

kesstrîvyans competition (economic etc)

kesstrîvyor m kesstrîvyoryon competitor, contestant

kessydhyans sanctions

kestaf m kestavow contact (all senses)

kesten col kestenen chestnuts

kesudnya combine

kesudnyans combination

kesudnyans lavur trade union

kesva f kesvaow board (organization)

keswel m keswelyow interview

ketelma See in ketelma

keth m kêthyon slave; addict

kethneth slavery; addiction

kethreydhak adj kethreydhogyon homosexual, same-sex

kethreydhogneth homosexuality

kettermyn See i’n kettermyn

keur m keuryow choir

keus cheese

kevalaf capital (finance)

kevala·vieth capitalism

kevals m kevalsyow joint (incl meat)

kevambos m kevambosow contract; treaty

Kevardhu See mis Kevardhu

kevarhewy invest

kevarwedha direct (all senses)

kevarwedhor m kevarwedhoryon director (all senses)l

kevarweth f kevarwedhyow information, directory

kevelsys adj articulated (lorry etc)

kever See in kever

keveryans orientation

keveryans brës attitude, mindset

keveylya accompany (musically)

kevos adj kevosyon contemporary

kevradna share; allot Verbal adj kevrydnys

kevradnak (kevrednak) adj kevranogyon participant

kevradnor m kevranoryon shareholder

kevran f kevradnow share (incl in company)

kevrath f kevradhow rate

kevren f kevrednyon fastener; link (to website etc); conjunction (grammar)

kevres f kevresow series

kevresek adj serial

kevreth f kevrêthyow system

kevrêthek adj systematic

kevrîn m kevrînyow mystery; secret

kevrînek adj mysterious; secret

kevrol f kevrolyow volume (book)

kewar adj accurate

kewar weather

kewarhen cannabis, marijuana

kewera v keep (promise); make (bed)

kewerder accuracy

kewny col kewnien moss; loosely lichen; loosely mildew

keworra add

keworrans m keworransow addition, supplement

keworransus adj additional, supplementary

keworransyn m keworransydnow additive

keybal ferry (boat, ship)

keyfordh f keyfordhow tunnel

keyn m keynow back (anatomical or ‘quasi-anatomical’ – e.g. of chair)

kibya snatch

kig flesh; meat

kig an dens gum(s)

[kig] bowyn beef

kig leugh veal

kig ôn lamb

kig porhel pork

kig yar chicken (meat)

kigsconyor m kigsconyoryon vegetarian

kil m kîlyow back end (of sth); recess

kil m kîlys skittle

kildedna pull back, withdraw; retreat

kildrof kildroyow recession

kilva f kilvaow background

knack adv immediately

knack ena / obma phr right there / here; on the spot; on the spur of the moment

knava m knavys knave; jack (in cards)

knofen toos f knofednow doughnut

knoukya knock

know col knofen nuts (incl for screws)

know côcô col knofen gôcô coconuts

know dor col knofen dhor peanuts

ky m keun dog, hound

kybel f kyblow tub

kybel atal f kyblow skip

kydnyaf autumn

kydnyow m kynyewow dinner

kyffewy pl party, celebration (both event and people attending)

kyffewyas m kyffewysy party-goer

kyfya confide in

kyfeth (jàm) jam

kyfeth owraval marmalade (orange)

kyjya fuck

kylo-1 pref kilo-

kynda kind, sort; genus See also dres kynda

kyns adv previously; rather

kyns prep + noun, verb-noun before

kyns ès prep + noun, non-personal pron verb-noun, infinitive construction before

kyns napell phr before long

kyns oll phr first of all

kyns (kyn) pedn prep within (time)

kyny grieve, mourn

kyst f kystyow chest (in fixed phrases)

kysten f kystednow box (in fixed phrases)

kyttryn m kyttrynyow bus

kyttryn dew leur m kyttrynyow double-decker bus


lâbel (tôkyn stag) m lâbelyow label

labm m labmow jump, leap See also in udn làm

labmwely m lamweliow trampoline

lacka adj worse; with definite article worst

lader m ladron thief

ladha kill Verbal adj ledhys

ladhva slaughter; massacre

ladra steal Verbal adj ledrys

ladrans theft, robbery (incl single act)

ladrynsy theft, robbery (always general)

lafyl adj legal

lagas m lagasow eye

lagen f lagednow pond; puddle

lagya splash Verbal adj usually lagyes

laha m lahys law

lappya cavort

larj adj generous; considerable Note comparative larjya

laser m lasers laser

lâss m lâcys lace

lath f lathow yard[stick]

la·tymer m latymerys interpreter

Latyn Latin

laun m launow blade; flake, sliver

launchya launch

launder m laundrys gutter (roof)

lavar m lavarow remark; expression; sentence See also wàr verr lavarow

lavar coth m lavarow proverb

lavaren f lavarednow phrase

lavasos presume, dare Verbal adj lavesys

lavrak m lavregow trousers

lavrak cot m lavregow shorts

lavrak nessa m lavregow pants

lavrak neyja m lavregow swimshorts

lavregyn m lavregydnow panties

lavregyn neyja m lavregydnow swimming trunks

lavur labour (incl childbirth); work (for a living)

lavurya labour; work (for a living); travel (with effort)

le adv/quant [a ] less, fewer As adv le precedes its adj See also dhe le

le m leow place (in fixed expressions) See in le, in le a2, in neb le, in pùb le, kemeres le

lebma sharpen

lebmel (labma) jump, leap

lebmyn adv now

lecher frying pan

ledan adj broad, wide

ledanhebroaden, wider

leder f ledrow slope, slant; bias

ledn f lednow blanket; nappy

ledn dewl f lednow tewl blind

ledrek adj sloping, slanted; biased

lêdya lead

lêdyor (lêder) m lêdyoryon leader

legest m legesty lobster

legestyk m legestygow prawn

legestyk Bay Dûlyn m legestygow scampi

legh f lehow slab; ledge

legh fenester f lehow window sill

lehereduce, diminish

lehen f lehednow slate, tile; tablet (device)

lel adj loyal; honest

lelder loyalty; honesty

lemyga sip

len adj faithful

lendya (lêna) lend (sth specific)

lenky swallow Pret loncas

lent adj slow

lent’heslow [down]

lenwel (a2) fill (with)

les breadth, width)

les interest; welfare See also dhe les, heb les vëth

les brâs dhodho yw phr he is interested in

les cul phr narrow-gauge adj (railway)

lêsa spread

lesbyan adj lesbian

lesbyanes f lesbyanesow lesbian

lesca swing; rock

lesha m leshys leash, lead

les’hanow m les’henwyn nickname

les’hensm les’hensy by-pass

lesk m lescow swing (motion); cradle

lesk lovan swing(s) (playground)

lesky burn Pret loscas

lêslenf lêslednow spreadsheet


lesson m lessons lesson

lessons tre pl homework

lestasm lestasow stepfather

lester m lestry vessel (all senses); pl dishes (to be washed)

lester flourys m lestry vase

lester sedhy m lestry submarine

let m lettys obstacle, hindrance; setback See also heb let

leth milk

leth shakys milkshake

lether leather

lettya (rag) prevent, stop ([from])

letys col leytysen lettuce(s)

leun adj (a2) full (of)

leun a dhedhewadow phr promising


leur ground; floor (incl storey)

leurlenf leurlednow carpet

leurneth m leurnedhow area (measurement)

leurweth adj horizontal

leuv f leuvyow hand (mostly in fixed phrases)

lev m levow voice 

level m levelyow level, tier

Level A m Levelyow A Level (examination, qualification)

leven adj smooth, even (incl number)

levender smoothness, evenness

levenhe ‖ (levna) smooth, even out; iron (clothes)

leverel (lawl) (dhe2) say (to) Pret leverys or lavaras See also hèn yw dhe leverel

leveryans m leveryansow pronunciation

leveryas m leverysy spokesman

lew m lewyow helm (steering)

lew See an Lew

lewyador m lewyadoryon pilot

lewyas steer; drive (vehicle)

lewyor m lewyoryon driver

lewyth m lewydhyon governor (school); moderator (debate)

leyth adj limp; humid

leythter limpness; humidity

liednak adj literary

lien literature

lien bord m lienyow tablecloth

lien codna m lienyow scarf

lien dêwla m lienyow hand towel; table napkin, serviette

lien dorn (dornlien) m lienyow handkerchief

lien dorn paper m lienyow tissue (for wiping nose etc)

lien gwely m lienyow bedsheet

lien seha lestry m lienyow tea towel

lienladrans plagiarism

lies quant + singular noun many See Grammar Words for pronominal use

liesek adj plural


liesleur adj multistorey

lin flax; linen 

lînedna sketch, outline

lînednor m lînenoryon draughtsman; linesman; ruler (for ruling lines)

lînen f lînednow line; track (railway) See also wàr lînen

lînen gedya (gedlînen) f lînednow guideline

lion (lew) m lionas lion

lis mud

lîsak adj muddy

lîter m lîtrow litre

liv m lîvyow flood

liv f lîvyow file (for nails etc)

lo f loyow spoon

loas m loasow spoonful

lobbya lobby

loder m lodrow stocking

lodryk m lodrygow sock

logas col logosen mice

logas brâs col logosen vrâs rats

logh f lohow loch (inlet, lake)

lojyk See herwyth lojyk

lomen pÿs mushy peas

londya land (especially from boat)

loneth f lonethy kidney

loor moon

loos adj grey; mouldy

loren f lorednow satellite

lorgh m lorhow staff, stick

losk pengasen heartburn

loskveneth m loskvenydhyow volcano

losow col losowen plants, vegetation

losow debry col losowen vegetables (for eating)

lost m lostow tail; queue See also dreslebmel an lost

losten f lostednow skirt

lotry See an Lotry [Kenedhlek]

lovan f lovonow rope

lowarn m lewern fox

lowarth (jarn) m lowarthow garden

lowarthor m lowarthoryon gardener

lowen adj happy, glad

lowender happiness, joy

lowenhemake happy; rejoice

lower quant + singular noun quite a few See Grammar Words for pronominal use 

lowr adj/adv/quant [a2] sufficient; quite; enough; a lot of As adv lowr follows its adj

lows adj loose, slack; careless

lowsethes negligence

lowsya (lowsel) loosen

lu lestry (morlu ‖) m luyow navy

lûb ergh slush

lùck luck, fortune

lugarn m lugern lamp

luhes col luhesen lightning Singulative also used for flash

luhesy flash

lùll ha lay lullaby

lùlla lull

Lun See de Lun

lus (ÿs du) col lusen bilberries, blueberries

lus rudh col lusen cranberries

lusow col ash(es)

lust m lustys lust

ly (prës ly) f lîvyow lunch

lybm adj sharp; pointed; acute

lybral adj/m librals liberal As attributive adj lybral precedes or follows its noun See also an Lybral Democratyon

lycklod likelihood, probability See also dre lycklod

lyckya lick

lydn liquid

lydn f lydnow lake

lyfrêson delivery; release; acquittal

lyftya lift

lyha adj least See also dhe’n lyha

lyly col lilien lilies

lymaval m lymavallow lime (fruit)

lymna paint (art); illustrate

lymnans m lymnansow painting; illustration

lymnor m lymnoryon painter (art); illustrator

lymon m lymonys lemon

lymytya limit

lynas col lynasen nettles

lÿscadnas m lÿscanhasow ambassador

lystedna bandage

lysten f lystednow bandage

lyther m lytherow letter

lyther kemyn m lytherow will (testament)

lytherdoll postage

lytheren f lytherednow letter (alphabet)

lythergyst f lythergystyow letter-box

lyver m lyfryow (lyvrow) book

lyver termyn m lyvrow magazine

lyverva (lyverjy) m lyvervaow library

lyvryk (lyvryn) m lyvrygow booklet

lyw howl [sun]tan

lywa colour, dye



mab m mebyon son; boy

mab den human [being]; mankind

mab y dhama what’s-his-name

mabm f mabmow mother

mabmek f mamegow matrix

mabmscrifm mamscrifow original (document)

mabmyêth f mamyêthow native language

Mabmyk Mummy

madama madam addressing sb

maga feed; nurture, rear; breed Verbal adj megys

magata adv as well

magel f maglow tangle; mesh

maghteth f meghtythyon assistant (shop etc); waitress

maglen f maglednow trap; grid; grating; gear (engine)

magly entangle; change gear

mailya wrap

mailyas wrap[per], packaging

mailyor m mailyoryon envelope

main m mainys medium; means See also an mainys [kemunessa]

mainor m mainoryon agent; broker

maino·rieth f mainoriethow agency (all senses)

màl eagerness; *be eager to; *look forward to

malbew dabm phr with express negative at all, with implied negative not at all

màn adv with express negative at all See Numerals for use as numeral

man-2 pref small, fine

mandât m mandâtys mandate

manek f manegow glove

maner f manerow manner (all senses) See also ken maner

mangô m mangôs mango

ma·nykyn m & f ma·nykyns model (fashion)

manylyon pl details; data

mappa m mappys map

mar pleg phr please

marchont m marchons merchant

margh m mergh horse Note an vergh

margh tan m mergh locomotive

marghredyk horseradish

marhak m marhogyon horseman, rider; knight

marhas f marhajow market See also a varhas dhâ

marhas stockys f marhajow stock market

marhas tiak f marhajow farmers’ market

marhogeth m/v riding; ride (horse, bicycle etc)

marhogieth knighthoodn

marnas prep + noun, pron (independent if personal) except; minus Note construction ny ... marnas = only Note very frequent abbreviated form ma’s

marner m marners sailor

marow adj dead; stagnant (water); flat (beer) Note construction ev a veu marow = he died

mars yw res phr if necessary

mars yw taclow indelma phr in that case

martesen (par hap) adv maybe, perhaps See also heb mar [na martesen]

marth (a2) wonder; *be surprised (at) See also sordya marth in

marthys adj wonderful As adv preceding an adj amazingly, extremely

maryach m maryajys marriage

ma’s See marnas

mason m masons mason (incl freemason)

maso·nieth freemasonry

mass mass (physics)

mâta m mâtys mate, pal

mater m maters matter (all senses)

maw boy, lad

See mis Mê

mebla furnish

mebyl (gùtrel) furniture

meder m medrow objective

medhegieth medicine (all senses)

medhegneth medication

medhegva f medhegvaow health centre, surgery (GP)

medhegyl adj medical

medhek m medhygyon doctor

medhek teylu m medhygyon family doctor, GP

medhel adj soft; tender

medhelder softness; tenderness



medhow adj drunk

medhowynsy drunkenness

mega-1 pref mega-

megy smoke; stifle, muffle

megyans nurture, upbringing

mel honey

melder See [ow] melder

melen adj yellow

mellya (gans) meddle, interfere (with)

melwhes col melwhejen slugs

melyas grind

melyn wyns f melynyow gwyns windmill; wind turbine

melysor m melysoryon sweetener

men m meyn stone Note an veyn

mencyon m mencyons mention See also gwil mencyon a2

meneges indicate; state

menegva f menegvaow index; catalogue

menegyans m menegyansow statement; commentary

menestrouthy band (musical)

meneth (mena) m menydhyow mountain; hill

men-gledhm men-gledhyow quarry

menowgh adj frequent Note construction yn fenowgh = often See also namenowgh

menta mint (plant)

mentênour m mentênours conservative

mentênya (mentêna) maintain, uphold

mên-termyn See i’n mên-termyn

mêny m mênys household

mêny cabyn m mênys cabin crew

mênyng meaning

menyster m menysters minister (all senses)

menystra administer

menystror m menystroryon administrator

menystry m menystrys ministry

mer m mêras mayor

meras (miras) (orth, wàr2) look (at)

Merher See de Merher

merhyk m merhygow pony

Meriasek St Meriadoc

merk (mark) m merkys mark; brand

merk diacry·tycal (aken) m merkys diacritical mark, accent (over letter)

merkya notice; remark

mernans death

meror m meroryon spectator

Merth See de Merth, mis Merth

merther m mertheryon martyr

merwel die

meryt m merytys merit

mes See dhe ves, [in] mes, [in] mes a2

meschauns disaster

mesk See [in] mesk

messach m messajys message

mêster m mêstrysy master; as title Mr

mêstres f mêstresow mistress; as title Mrs, Ms

mêstresyk f mêstresygow young lady; as title Miss

mêstrynjys mastery, domination; regime

mêsva f mêsvedhow inch

me·tafor m metaforow metaphor

mêter m mêtrow metre

meth m mothow shame; embarrassment; shyness; *be ashamed embarrassed / shy; pl breakdown; fiasco See also gorra meth in, kemeres meth

Metheven See mis Metheven

method m methodys method

Methodyst m Methodystyon Methodist

metho·rieth catering

methus adj shameful, disgraceful

methy feed (baby: breast or bottle)

metya [gans] meet

metyans m metyansow meeting

meur adj/adv/quant (a2) great; much; a lot of As adv meur precedes a comparative adj See also nameur

meur ras [dhys / dhywgh] phr thank you

meur y berthyans phr patient

meur y boos phr important

meur y deythy phr gifted

meur y dhydhan phr witty

meur y dros phr noisy

meur y hanow phr famous

meur y nell phr forceful

meur y wres phr passionate

meureth greatness

meurgerys adj much loved

mewgh m mewghyow warranty; sponsorship; bail; pl securities (investments) See also in dadn vewgh

mêyonês mayonnaise

mil dov m milas pet

mildirf mildiryow mile; pl mileage

milva f milvaow zoo

milvedhek m milvedhygyon vet

min m minyon mouth (lips); beak; brim; edge (blade)

minlywm minlywyow lipstick

minvlewmoustache; whiskers (cat)

minwharthm minwharthow smile

minwherthyn smile

mis m mîsyow month

mis Du adv/m (in) November

mis Ebrel adv/m (in) April

mis Est adv/m (in) August

mis Genver adv/m (in) January

mis Gortheren (Gorefen) adv/m (in) July

mis Gwydngala adv/m (in) September

mis Hedra adv/m (in) October

mis Kevardhu adv/ (in) December

mis Mê adv/m (in) May

mis Merth adv/m (in) March

mis Metheven (Efen) adv/m (in) June

mis Whevrel adv/m (in) February

mockya mock

môcyon m môcyons gesture; motion (in debate)

model m modellys model (of / for sth)

modrewy f modrewiow bracelet, bangle

modryp f modrebeth aunt

mog smoke

mol y bedn phr bald

moldra murder

molgh dhu f molhas du blackbird

momentùm momentum

mon adj slender, slim

mona m & col money

mona munys m & col small change

mona parys m & col cash


montol (mantol) f montolyow  scales (for weighing) See also an Vontol

montolly (mantolly) weigh (sth)

moos f mosow table (mostly in fixed expressions) See settya moos

mor m morow sea

mor du col moren dhu blackberries

moral adj moral As attributive adj moral precedes or follows its noun

mora·lyta morality


mordardhya (mordardha) surf

mordhos f mordhojow thigh; ham

mordryg ‖ (tryg) low tide

moreth melancholy 

morgaja m morgajys mortgage

morhoghm morhohas porpoise

morlanow high tide

mortal adj mortal; deadly, fatal, lethal As attributive adj mortal precedes or follows its noun

morthol m mortholow hammer


morva shore; coastline

morvilm morvilas whale

morvildenjak m morvilas orca, killer whale

morvleydh ‖ (sharca) m morvleydhas shark

mos (mones) go Pret êth Verbal adj gyllys See Key Verb Tables for imperatives

mos adro· phr circulate

mos an hens cot phr take a short cut

mos dhe goll phr perish

mos i'n ewn fordh phr go straight (ahead, to somewhere)

mos mes a wel phr disappear

mos rag phr vouch for

mos wàr bedn dêwlin phr kneel [down]

mosk m moscow mosque

most m mostyon dirt, muck

mostethes filth (all senses)

mostya pollute, contaminate

môtorfordhf môtorfordhow motorway

mousak adj stinking

môvya propose (in meeting); move (emotionally)

môvyans move (incl in chess etc); movement, motion; emotion

mowes f mowysy girl, lass

moy (pronounced 'mùy', sometimes so written) adv/quant [a2] more As adv moy precedes its adj See also dhe voy, gorra moy dhe2, namoy, nefra namoy

moy pò le phr more or less

moyha adv most Precedes its adj

Mùhamad Muhammad

mùllyon col mùllyonen clover

mûn mineral; ore

mûndalas m mûndalasow royalty (payment)

munys adj tiny

mùryon col mùryonen ants

muscok adj mad, insane

muscotter madness, insanity

Mùslym (Moslem, Sarsyn) adj/m Muslim

musur m musurow measure (all senses) See also dres musur

musura measure

musurans measurement(s)

musurel tomder f musurellow thermometer

mûsycyen m mûsycyens musician

mûsyk music

mûtya moult; sulk

my a'th / a'gas pës phr please (formal / insistent)

mycro-1 pref micro-

my·crofôn m mycrofônow microphone

mydnas v + verb-noun wish to, want to Note construction ev a vydn gwil neppëth = he will do sth, he is going to do sth See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

mygla cool (sth hot)

mygyl adj lukewarm, tepid; half-hearted

Myhal Sans St Michael

myjyn m myjydnow tiny bit

myly-1 pref milli-

myns size, quantity See Grammar Words for pronominal use

myns cûbek volume (measurement)

mynysen f mynysow minute

myowal miaow

myrgh f myrhas daughter; girl

myrgh hy dama what’s-her-name

myshef harm

myshevya ruin (all senses)

myskemerys osta phr you’re mistaken / wrong

myssyon m myssyons mission

myte·rn m myterneth king

myternes f myternesow queen

myttyn adv/m myttynow (in the) morning


na fella (felha) phr with express negative any longer, with implied negative no longer

na fors phr + express or implied question word no matter

na hen adv with express negative otherwise

na whath phr with express negative yet, with implied negative not yet

nacyon m nacyons nation

Nadelyk Christmas

nader f nedras adder, viper

nagh denial; repudiate

naha deny; repudiate

najeth f najedhow needle

nàm m namow blemish, stain (incl figuratively) See also heb nàm

nama stain (incl figuratively)

namenowgh adv + express or implied negative seldom

nameur quant with express negative much, with implied negative not much

namnygen adv just now, a moment ago

namo·y adv with express negative any more, with implied negative no more

naneyl adv with express negative either, with implied negative neither

nano-1 pref nano-

nans See wàr nans

nans yw pell phr long ago Use nans o pell in past narrative

NAP abbr (= nyver aswon personek) PIN

nape·ll adv with express negative for long, with implied negative not for long 

nappya have a nap; sleep (computer)

natur f naturs nature See also dres natur

naturek adj natural

neb fordh See [in] neb fordh

neb gradh phr to some extent

neb sort a2 phr some sort of

nebes adv/quant a little, a few As adv nebes precedes its adj

nedh col nedhen nits

nefra adv ever; with implied negative never (present or future reference)

nefra a bes phr as attributive adj eternal

nefra namo·y phr with express negative ever again, with implied negative never again (future reference)

negedhek adj negative

negejyth m negejydhyon commissioner

negejyth gôlyas m negejydhyon ombudsman

negys m negyssyow (orth) business (with)

nell might, power See also meur y nell

nen m nenow ceiling

nepprësadv sometime

nerth m nerthow might, power; energy (physics)

nerth y vydnas willpower

nerv f nervow nerve (anatomical)

nervus adj highly strung

nes adj/adv (dhe2) nearer. closer (to) position. motion; here motion; with express negative at all See also in nes

nes’he ‖ (nessa) come near, approach

nessa adj nearest; next See Numerals for use as numeral

neus col neujen threads (all senses)

nev m nevow heaven Optionally preceded by an

new f newyow trough; sink

newher adv last night, yesterday evening

neyj flight; swim; stroke (manner of swimming)

neyja fly; swim; float

neyth m neythow nest

neythy nest

neythy y honen phr nestle

nith f nithow niece

nôcyon m nôcyons notion

normal adj normal As attributive adj normal precedes or follows its noun

norma·lyta normality

Norman adj/m Normans Norman

north adj/m north(ern)

nos f nosow night

noswedhek adj characteristic

nosweth f noswedhyow characteristic

nôta m nôtys note (money, music)

nôten f nôtednow note

noth adj bare, naked; nude

notha nakedness, nudity

nôtya note; announce See also gwyw dhe nôtya

nôtyans note; announcement

novel m novellys novel

now interj [well] now

nowedhadow adj renewable

nowedhy renew, renovate; update; innovate

nowedhyans m nowedhyansow renewal, renovation; update; innovation

nowedhyansus adj innovative

nown hunger

nownek adj hungry (for lack of food)

nowodhow (nowedhys) pl news

nowyth adj/adv new; with verb recently, just

nowyth flàm phr brand new

noy m noyens nephew

nûdel m nûdels noodle

nùk See wàr nùk

nùmber m nùmbers number (countable quantity)

ny’n deur màn phr he couldn’t care less

ny sens ev oy a2 phr he has not time for (dislike, indifference)

ny vern phr it doesn’t matter

nylon nylon

nyver m nyverow number (mathematics)

nyvera count (, , ); enumerate

nyveren f nyverednow numeral

nywl m nywlow fog, mist

nywlek adj foggy, misty



ô interj oh (surprise)

ober m oberow work (specific), task, job; deed See also in ober

oberwasm oberwesyon workman

obery accomplish; act, work, operate

oberyans operation (incl surgery)

obeya obey

obeyans (obedyens) obedience

obma adv here

obsessya obsess

obtainya obtain

ocasyon m ocasyons occasion

ocûpya occupy (all senses)

odour m odours smell (individual)

oferen f oferednow mass (Catholic)

offendya offend (all senses)

offens m offencys offence (all senses)

offrydna sacrifice (incl figuratively)

ogas adj/adv (dhe2) near, close (to) position; intimate; almost As adv ogas precedes and qualifies an adj or an adv See also in ogas

ogas dhe2 prep near, close to position

ogas ha phr preceding noun or numeral almost

ogas lowr phr following an expression of specific quantity approximately

ogasty mobile adv almost

ogh interj oh (emotion)

oker interest (on deposit or loan)

ol m olow footprint; trace, vestige; pl type[face]

ola weep, cry

olas hearth, fireplace

olcan m olcanow metal

olew olive oil

[oll] a'y anvoth phr reluctantly

[oll] a'y vodh phr gladly

oll an gwella (gwelha) phr best regards

olyfans m olyfansas elephant

Olympek See an Gwariow Olympek

omassaya (ow qwil neppëth) practise (doing sth)

omassayans m omassayansow exercise, practice

omassayva f omassayvaow gym[nasium]

omberthy balance intr

omblegya bow (take a bow)

omborth balance

omborthus adj ambivalent, equivocal; ambiguous; wobbly

ombredery (a2) ponder, consider

ombrofya (rag) apply (for)

ombrofyor m ombrofyoryon candidate

omdava (gans) get in touch (with) Verbal adj omdevys

omdedha dissolve intr

omdedna withdraw intr; retire; shrink

omden withdrawal; retirement

omdhal (gans) quarrel (with)

omdhehesy throw oneself Note constructions omdhehesy warbarth = collide and omdhehesy warbydn = collide with

omdhevas adj/m orphan

omdhon m/v behaviour; behave Pret omdhug Verbal adj omdhegys

omdhyberth secede; log off

omdhysodha resign

omdhysodhans resignation

omdhysqwedhyans [kerdh] m parade

omdhysqwîtha relax (by leisure)

omdhyvlâmya apologize

omdhyvlâmyans apology

omdowl wrestling; struggle

omdôwlel wrestle; struggle

omdrailya turn around

omfydhyans m [self-]confidence

omgaregyn m omgaregydnow fossil

omgelmy (gans) engage (with); log on

omgemeres rag phr undertake

omgemeryans responsibility

omgemeryans strothys limited liability

omglôwes feel (in oneself)

omgùssulya (gans) consult, confer, discuss (with)

omladha v no inflection kill oneself

omlath m/v (orth, warbydn) fight [against]

omlêsa spread intr

omoffrydnans self-sacrifice

omrolya (in) join (organization); check in (to flight, hotel)

omry (dhe2) yield, give up; devote oneself (to)

omsensy feel (opinion)

omsettya dhe2 phr commit to (sth, doing sth)

omsettya orth / wàr2 / warbydn oppose (sb, sth); attack (sb, sth)

omsettyans opposition; attack

omudnya unite intr Note constructions omudnya gans =  identify with and omudnya warbydn = gang up on

omweres cope, manage intr

omwheles overturn

omwolhy wash intr

omwovyn ask oneself, wonder

ôn m ên lamb

onest adj decent, proper

only adv only

onora (enora) honour

onour m onours honour

onyon col onyonen onions

oos m osow age (all senses) See also an Osow Cres

oportûnyst m oportûnystyon opportunist

ôpyn adj/adv open(ly)

ôpyn gwelys phr evident

opynyon m opynyons opinion

or f oryon border, frontier; pl outskirts

organ m organs organ (all senses)

organek adj organic

orkestra m orkestras orchestra

ors m orsas bear

orth an myns phr proportionate

orthodontyth m orthodontydhyon orthodontist

orthopêdyk adj orthopaedic

oryel pyctours m oryels art gallery

o·sieth ageism

ost m ôstys host; landlord

ostel f ostelyow hotel

ôstya stay (overnight)

ôstyas m ôstysy guest (overnight)

ôstys ervys pl armed forces

ot obma phr here is / are

otham (ethom) m othobmow *need See also heb otham

othomva f othomvaow service station

our m ourys hour ( minutes)

outray atrocity

outrayus adj outrageous

overcùmya overcome

ow cortos yn parys phr on standby (for flight etc)

ow kelly phr slow (clock)

ow kemeres pêmons socyal phr on benefits

[ow] melder phr darling

ow tùchya [dhe2] (tùchyng) phr + noun, non-personal pron relating to, concerning, about

own (a2) *fear (of) See also gorra own in, kemeres own, perthy own

ôwnter m ôwntras uncle

owr gold

owraval m owravallow orange (fruit)

owrbysk m owrbùscas goldfish

owrek adj golden


oy m oyow egg

oyl oil

oyla oil

oynment m oynmens ointment


pab m pabow pope

pack keyn m packys backpack

packet m packettys packet

padel f padellow pan

padel dhorn f padellow saucepan

padn m padnow cloth, fabric

pain (gloos) m painys pain, ache

paint m paintys paint

paintya paint

pal f palyow spade (incl in cards)

palas dig Verbal adj pelys

paljia paralyse

palm m palmys palm (plant)

palores f paloresow chough

pals adj abundant

palv f palvow palm (hand)

palvala grope; feel one’s way Verbal adj palvelys

paly velvet

palys m palycys palace

pana brow? phr (mar) what’s the point? (of doing sth)

panel m panellow panel

panes col panen parsnips

pans m pansow dell

paper m paperyow paper

paper fos m paperyow wallpaper

paper nowodhow m paperyow newspaper

paper ugans m paperyow twenty pound note Likewise paper deg etc

par See a’n par-ma, a’n par-na

par termyn ... par termyn phr now ... now

paradhys paradise

paranoya adj paranoia

parashûta (labmlen ‖) m parashûtys parachute

park m parcow field (enclosed, also of force); pitch (sport)

park poblek m parcow park (municipal, national)

park caravanow m parcow caravan park

park kerry m parcow car park

parkya park

parra m parrys team

part m partys part (contrasted with another)

parth f parthow part, side See also a’n barth-ma dhe2

party m partys party (all senses)

Party an Gemynwer The Communist Party

Party an Lavur The Labour Party

Party an Ventênours (Party an Tôrys) The Conservative Party

parusy (parujy) prepare; cook

parys adj (dhe2) ready (to); willing (to) See also ow cortos yn parys, sqwychys dhe barys

paryster readiness; propensity

pas m pasow cough

pasbord cardboard

Pask Easter

pâss m pâcys pace, step

passa cough

passêr m passeryow password

passya pass (incl examination); overtake

pasta pasta

pastel losowek f pastellow allotment (garden)

pasty m pastys pasty, pie

patâta m patâtys potato

pâtê pâté

patron m patronyow pattern; model (design)

paw m pawyow paw; claw (crab, lobster)

pawgenf pawgednow slipper

payon m payonas peacock


pedn m pednow head; end (extremity)

pedn an fordh destination

pedn bloodh m pednow birthday

pedn seythen m pednow weekend

pedncyta f pencytys (pencytas) capital (city) 

pednfronf penfrodnow muzzle (for dog)

pednrêwlf penrêwlys principle

pednscrefor m penscreforyon editor (newspaper, magazine)

pednserm pensery architect

pedrak adj/m pedrogyon square

pedrevan f pedrevanow lizard

pedry rot; corrupt Pret podras

pega·ns means (financial)

pegh sin

peha sin

pehador m pehadoryon sinner

pejadow prayer

pel f pelyow ball

pel droos football (game)

peldrosyas m peldrosysy footballer

pelednyk f pelenygow pill, tablet

pell adj far; long (of time) See also kyns napell, na fella, nans yw pell, napell

pellder distance; length of time Also used as adv for a long time

pellen f pelednow ball (of sth); dumpling

pellgôwsel (orth) talk on the phone (with)

pellgowsor m pellgowsoryon [tele]phone

pellwolok television

pelour m pelours fur (for wearing)

pêmont m pêmons payment

penbleth f penblethow quandary, dilemma

Pencast Pentecost, Whitsun

pencyon m pencyons pension

peneglos f peneglosyow cathedral

penfenten f penfentydnyow source (all senses)

pengasen stomach

pens (puns) m pensow pound (weight, money)

penscol See An Benscol Egerys

per col peren pears

Peran St Piran

perfëth adj perfect

perfëthyth m perfëthydhyon perfectionist

perhedna possess; own

perhednak m perhenogyon proprietor; landlord (of tenant)

perhen m perhednyon owner; holder (licence, patent etc)

perl m perlys pearl

persecûtya persecute; victimize

person m persons person; character (in play etc)

personek adj personal

perswâdya persuade, convince Note construction perswâdya nebonen dhe wil / na wrella neppëth = persuade sb to do / not to do sth

perthadow adj bearable

perthy awhê·r phr worry

perthy cov phr (a2) remember

perthy danjer phr + verb-noun be reluctant to

perthy dowt / own phr (a2) fear

perthy envy (avy) phr (orth) envy

perthy grêvons phr (orth) bear a grudge (against)

perthy scruth phr be horrified / shocked

perthyans patience See also fowt perthyans, meur y berthyans

perthyn (longya) dhe2 phr belong to; relate to

perthynek (longus) adj (dhe2) relevant (to)

peryl m perylyow danger, risk

peryllya endanger, risk (sb, sth); + verb-noun risk (doing sth)

peryllys adj dangerous, risky

pës dâ phr (a2) pleased (with)

peswar torn crossroads

pesy (pejy) pray (for sth) Note constructions pesy gans nebonen = pray for sb, pesy wàr nebonen = pray to sb, pesy orth nebonen (or infixed pron) a wil / na wrella neppëth = ask sb to do / not to do sth See also my a'th / a'gas pës

pêsya continue Note construction pêsya ow qwil neppëth = continue doing sth See also nefra a bes

pëth m possessions, assets See Grammar Words for pronominal use

petrol petrol

petrolva f petrolvaow filling station

petycyon m petycyons petition

pêwas award

pib f pîbow pipe (incl for smoking), tube

pîbel f pîbellow pipe, tube

pîben f pîbednow pipe, tube; pl plumbing

pîbow sagh pl bagpipes

piga prick; sting; excite

pigvônadj pointed

pil m pîlyow battery

pînaval m pînavallow pineapple

pîsa v pee

pîsas urine

pith m pîthow pit (artificial); well

pla See a’n pla

plain adj/m plainys plain; square, piazza

plain an gwary theatre (open-air)

planet m planettys planet

plans m plansow plant (vegetation)

plansa plant Verbal adj plynsys

plâss m plâssyow place (incl at table); mansion

plaster plaster

plastyfia laminate (document etc)

plastyk adj/m plastygow plastic

plat adj flat

plât m plâtyow plate

platten f platednow disk (computer, recording)

plattya flatten; crouch

plebmyk See dhe blebmyk

pleg m plegow bend; fold

plegadow adj/m agreeable (sb, sth); acceptable (sth); desire, inclination See also dh’y blegadow

plegel f plegellow folder

plegya bend; fold; (dhe2) please

plegya tâl phr frown

plenty (plenta) m (a2) plenty (of), enough

plesont adj pleasant

plesour m plesours pleasure

plestryn m plestrydnow plaster (for minor cut)

plêsya please

plethen f plethednow pigtail (hair); string (onions etc)

plethy braid, plait

plit situation

plobm lead (metal)

plobmyor m plomyoryon plumber

plos adj plosyon dirty

plos y davas phr foul-mouthed

plosegy dirty; get dirty

plot m plottys plot (of story)

plùmen f plùmednow plum

pluv col pluven feathers; singulative also used for pen

pluvak f pluvogow cushion, pillow

pluven belvleynf pluvednow pelvleyn ballpoint [pen]

pluven blobm f pluvednow plobm pencil

pluw f pluwyow parish

plynchya flinch; blink; wince

pobas bake Pret pebys Verbal adj pebys

pobel f poblow people See also an bobel, an bobel vian

poblans m poblansow population

poblegeth (repùblyk) m poblegedhow republic

poblegy publicize

poblegyans publicity

poblek adj public

pock m pockyow push; prod

pocket m pockettys pocket

pockya push; prod

podcast m podcastys podcast

poder adj rotten

poder dans tooth decay

podradow adj perishable (food)

podrak adj podrogyon decayed; corrupt

podrethes rot, decay; corruption

podyk m podygow jug (small); mug (beer)

poll m pollow pool; pit (hollow)

poll atal m pollow rubbish dump

poll neyja m pollow swimming pool

poll pry m pollow clay pit

pollat m polatys fellow, chap, guy

pollgor m pollgorow committee

pols pulse, heartbeat; moment (duration, not point in time)

pols bian phr a little while; a little way (distance)

pols dâ phr quite a while; quite a way (distance)

polsor m polsoryon pendulum

polter powder

po·lycy m po·lycys policy (all senses)

polyshya (polsya) polish

polyty·gieth politics (generally)

po·lytyk adj political; shrewd

pompyon m pompyons pumpkin

pompyon dowr m pompyons watermelon

pompyon hir m pompyons marrow (vegetable)

pompyon wheg m pompyons honeydew melon

pompyonyk m pompyonygow courgette

pons m ponsow bridge

pons cregys m ponsow suspension bridge

pons kerdh m ponsow footbridge

ponsfordhf ponsfordhow viaduct

ponya run (sb, sth animate) Imperative pòn

poos adj/adv/m posow heavy; serious (bad); deep(ly) (sleep); weight Also used idiomatically for pound weight Comparative possa See also meur y boos

pooslevm pooslevow stress, emphasis

poosleva stress, emphasize

popet m popettys doll; puppet

po·pynjay m po·pynjays parrot

pop-ÿscol pop-ÿsen popcorn

pòr2 adv very Precedes its adj

pora·n adv exactly

porhel m porhelly pig

pornografek adj pornographic

porpos purpose, intention

porpos m porpesow plaice

porposya intend Note construction bos porposys dhe wil neppëth = intend to do sth

pors m porsys purse

portal m portalys porch

porth m porthow gateway; harbour, port; cove

portreya portray

portreyans m portreyansow portrait; profile (public)

portwînport (drink)

pory graze

pory in phr browse (book, shop etc)

posa (wàr2, warbydn) lean (against)

posnya poison

possybyl adj possible

possybylta m possybyltys (possybyltas) possibility

post m postow post (all senses)

postcôdm postcôdys postcode

postya post

posytyf adj positive

pot m pottow pot

pot tê m pottow teapot

pôt m pôtow kick

pôtya kick

pow m powyow country (geographical); countryside

power power (political)

powes m/v rest; pause; interval (performance) See also gwil powes

powes wàr2 phr depend on

pows f powsyow dress; robe

pows nos f powsyow nightie

poynt m poyntys point (all senses); with express negative at all See also in poynt dâ

poynt a skians m poyntys proverb; maxim

poyntyor m poyntyoryon pointer

poyson m poysons poison

practys m practycyow practice (all senses)

pragmatek adj pragmatic

praisya praise

pras m prasow meadow

prat m prattys trick; stunt

preder m prederow thought; worry See also kemeres preder

prederus adj thoughtful; worried

predery think

predn m prednyer wood; bar

pregoth (progeth) m/v sermon; preach

prena (perna) buy, purchase

prenas m prenasow buy, purchase

prenassa v no inflection shop

prenor m prenoryon buyer, purchaser

prentys m prentycys apprentice

prës m prejyow time (specific, actual) See also i’n gwella prës, i’n gwetha prës Note construction prës yw + verb-noun = it is time to

prës [boos] m prejyow meal

present attributive adj present Precedes its noun See also a’n present termyn, rag an present termyn

presentya present

presentyans presentation

prest adv all the time

prestya lend (money)

prestyans loan (money)

pre·sydent m pre·sydens president

pretendya claim

prëv m preves (prevyon) creepy-crawly; insect (loosely)

prëv del m preves caterpillar

prevy prove; test Pret provas

prias m & f priosow spouse

pris m prîsyow prize; price See also a bris

problem m problemow problem (all senses)

problemek adj problematic

professour m professours professor

profet (profus) m profettys prophet

profya (offra) offer, bid; propose, suggest; dedicate (to sb)

project (ragdres) m projectow project

profyans m profyansow offer, bid; proposal, suggestion; dedication (to sb)

profyt profit

promys (dedhewadow) m promyssyow promise

promyssya (dedhewy) promise

pros (yêth plain) prose

Protestant adj/m Protestans Protestant

protestya protest

protestyans protest; demonstration (political)

prov proof; test

prov menystry MOT

provia provide, supply Note construction provia neppëth dhe nebonen = supply sb with sth

provians supply; supplies

provior m provioryon provider

provôkya provoke

prow advantage See also a brow

prownter (pronter) m prontyryon priest

prowt adj proud

pry clay

pry gwydn china clay

pryck point (compass); degree (circle)

prydy·dhieth poetry

prydyth m prydydhyon poet

pryjweyth moment (point in time)

prynces (pensevyges) f pryncesow princess

pryns (pensevyk) m pryncys prince

prynt m pryntys print

pryntya print

pryntyor m pryntyoryon printer

prysner m prysners prisoner

pryson m prysons prison

prysonya imprison

pryva (pryveth) adj private; confidential

pryvedhyow pl toilet(s)

pryvetter privacy; confidentiality

pùb wàr y dorn phr in turn

puber pepper

pubryn m pubrydnow bell pepper

pùdyn m pùdyns pudding

pùmp m pùmpys pump

pùmpya pump

pùnyshment m pùnyshmentys punishment

pùnyshya (pùnsya) punish

pùpprës (pùb eur [oll], pùb termyn) adv always

pur adj pure; sheer (intensifying)

purheor m purheoryon purifier; sanitizer

pùrrya purr

pùscador m pùscadoryon (pùscadors) fisherman

pùsorn m pùsernow bundle (tied together)

py eur yw? phr what’s the time?

pyanô m pyanôs piano

pycher m pychers pitcher, jug (large)

pyckel m pyckels pickle

pyckla pickle

pyctour m pyctours picture; painting

pydn m pydnys pin

pydna pin

pyjâmas pl pyjamas

pykern m pykernow cone (all senses)

pyllen f pylednow fringe; frayed cloth, rag

pyncel m pyncels brush (artist’s); pencil (especially for make-up); marker pen

pynchya pinch

pynta m pyntys pint

pÿs col pysen peas

pysk m pùscas fish See also an Pùscas

pyskessa v no inflection fish

pyskva f pyskvaow aquarium; fish farm

pystyga injure

pystyk m pystygow injury

pyt m pyttys pit

pyta (pyteth) pity, compassion See also kemeres pyta orth

pyth adj mean, stingy

pythneth meanness, stinginess

pytsa m pytsas pizza

pyxel m pyxellyow pixel



qwa·lyta m qwa·lytys (qwa·lytas)

qwestyon m qwestyons (-ow) question

qwit adv completely

qworùm m qwora quorum

qwylkyn m qwylkydnow frog

qwyz m qwyzys quiz


racan m racanow rake

rach care, attention

radn f radnow part See also kemeres radn

radna divide; share; deal (cards) Verbal adj rydnys

radnlesm ranlesow commission (fee)

radnriv ‖ (fracsyon) f ranrîvyow fraction

radnyêthf ranyêthow dialect

radycal adj/m radycals radical As attributive adj radycal precedes or follows its noun

radyô m radyôs radio

rag an present termyn phr for now, for the time being

rag exampyl (rag ensampel) (r.e.) phr for example (e.g.)

rag hedna phr therefore

rag kerensa prep for the sake of

rag tro phr temporary, temporarily

ragêr m rageryow preposition

ragerhy reserve, book

rag’hanow m rag’henwyn pronoun

raglenf raglednow overall

ragpren subscription

ragprena subscribe (to) (newspaper, magazine etc)

ragprena eseleth in phr subscribe to (association, club)

ragresor m ragresoryon pioneer

ragvrehel f ragvrehellow cuff

ragvreus f ragvreusow prejudice

randir m randiryow region, district

randirek adj regional

ranjy m ranjiow flat, apartment

ras See meur ras

rastel f rastelly grill (cooking)

rastella grill

re adv/quant too; too much As adv re precedes its adj

reacsyon reaction (to situation)

realeth reality

rebellya rebel

rebellyans rebellion

recepcyon (degemerva) reception (front desk)

recêva (recêvya) receive

recêvys avell phr qualified as (professionally)

receyt m receytys recipe

recken m recknys bill, invoice

reckenva f reckenvaow checkout (supermarket etc)

reckna reckon, calculate See also heb reckna

reckna ogas lowr phr estimate

reckna termyn phr time (sth)

recknans reckoning, calculation

recknel f recknellow calculator (device, app)

record m recordys record (all senses)

recordya record; save (computing)

recordyans m recordyansow recording

reden col redenen bracken, ferns

redya read

redyk m redygow radish

referendùm (gwerynvôta ‖) m referenda referendum

regardya bear in mind

rejyster m reyjsters register (language)

remainya stay, remain

remembra remember

re·menant (remnant) remainder, rest

remôcyon removal (to new address); promotion (career)

remôvya (remuvya) remove

rencas m rencasow class (social)

rencas lavur working class

rendra v + adj render, make

renk m renkyow rank

renky snore; snort; croak; gurgle; rasp

rent m rentys revenue; rent

repentons repentance

repentya repent

reportyor m reportyoryon reporter

representya represent

reqwîrya require

res f rêsyow row; sequence

res See a res

res adro· phr roundabout (fairground); carousel (baggage)

res porrês See bos res porrês Note construction res [porrês ‖] yw dhodho + verb-noun = he [really] must (obligation)

res yw phr + infinitive construction he must (have) (inference) Use res o in past narrative

res [yw] avowa phr admittedly

rescous rescue

resegva f resegvaow race (contest); career

resegva bêwnans f resegvaow curriculum vitae

resek run (sth inanimate)

rêson m rêsons reason (all senses) See also dre rêson

rêsonek adj rational

rêsonus adj reasonable

rester f restry set-up, scheme (colour etc)

restry arrange (in tidy order) Pret restras

restryn m restrydnow file (document, incl computing)

reun m reunas seal (animal)

rev f revow oar, paddle; shovel

revrons (respect) respect See also gwil revrons dhe2

revya row, paddle

rew frost, ice

rew See in udn rew

reward (weryson) reward

rewardya reward

rewgyst ‖ (rewer) f rewgystyow freezer

rewjym rewjiow terraced house

rêwl f rêwlys rule; control

rêwl boos f rêwlys diet

rêwlya rule, regulate

rêwlyans regulation

rewy freeze Verbal adj also used for icy

reydh sex, gender

reydhak adj sexual

rial adj royal; splendid As attributive adj rial precedes or follows its noun

rias m riesy donor

rim m rîmyow rhyme

rîss rice

rîvednek adj digital

rîvbost ‖ (ebost) m rîvbostow email

ro m royow gift, present, donation

robbya v rob

robbyor v robbyoryon robber

robot m robottys robot

rocket (fusen) m rockettys rocket

rol m rôlys role

rol f rolyow roll (all senses); list

rol cana f rolyow playlist

rol vytel f rolyow menu (food)

rolbren m rolbrednyer roller; reel

rolya roll

rom m rômys room (≠ space)

rom esedha m rômys sitting room

rom kydnyow m rômys dining room

rom studhya (studhva) m rômys study (room)

Roman adj/m Romans Roman

romantek adj romantic

ronk snore; snort; croak; gurgle; rasp Also used as adj with same sense range

roos f rosow net

roosweythm roosweythow network

ros f rosow wheel

ros col rosen roses

roskys f roskyjyow roller skate

rôstya roast

rôsva f rosvaow avenue; drive (in front of house)

rôsya stroll; surf (web)

roweth prestige

rownd (rônd) adj round

rowter m rowteryow router (computing)

rùber rubber (material)

rudh adj red

rudhak m rudhogas robin

rudhvelen adj orange (colour)

rudhya blush

rùgby rugby

rugla rattle, jangle

rùm rum

rusk col rusken rind; bark (tree)

rùstla rustle (sound)

rûth f rûthow crowd

rùttya rub

ry (dhe2) give (to) Pret ros Imperatives ro (roy), rewgh Verbal adj rës

ry brodn dhe2 phr breastfeed

ry colon dhe2 phr encourage (sb)

ry cubmyas rag phr permit, allow (sth)

ry gweres dhe2 phr help, assist

ryban m rybanys ribbon

rybfordhf rybfordhow slip road

rych adj rich; expressive (language)

rych y awen phr creative

rychyth (rychys) wealth, riches

rygol groove; rut

rythym rhythm

ryver m ryvers river


sacrys adj sacred

sad adj serious, grave

Sadorn See de Sadorn

sagh m seghyer bag

sagh cùsca m seghyer sleeping bag

sagh keyn m seghyer rucksack 

salad m saladys salad

salad cavach coleslaw

salujy greet Pret salujas

sans adj/m sens holy; saint

sant m sandys course (meal)

sant melys m sandys dessert

sarcastyk adj sarcastic

sarchya search for


sav See a’y sav

savla m savleow position; site

savla bùss m savleow bus stop

saw adj safe, secure; prep + noun, pron (independent if personal) except for See Grammar Words for use as conj

sawder safety, security

sawor (saworen) m saworyow smell, fragrance; flavour Note construction yma sawor + noun / adj wàr = smell (have a particular smell); taste (have a particular taste

sawor Eyndek chutney

saworek adj fragrant; tasty; savoury (as opposed to sweet)

sawory smell (sth); taste (sth)

sawya save, rescue; recover (from illness)

Saxon m Saxons Saxon

scaffa gallen / galles phr a quick as I / you can

scaffotys pl scaffolding


scafhësy golon phr relieved

scala m scalys bowl (shallow)

scant adj/adv scarce; + optional negative hardly, scarcely

scant col scanten scales (fish, reptile)

scantlyn criterion (-a); template

scanya scan (with device)

scanyans ughsonultrasound scan

scanyor m scanyoryon scanner

scappya escape, get away

scath f scathow boat

scath sawya f scathow lifeboat

scav adj light (weight); slight; nimble; swift

scavel f scavellow stool; bench

scavel an gow gossip

scavel cronak f scavellow mushroom

scent m scentys scent, perfume

sciens m sciencys science

sciensek adj scientific

sciensyth m sciensydhyon scientist

sclander slander; scandal

sclandrus adj slanderous; scandalous

scobmyn m scobmow chip (chocolate, device)

scochfordhf scochfordhow alley[way]

scodhya support

scodhya wàr2 phr rely on

scodhyans support

scodhyor m scodhyoryon supporter

scol f scolyow school

scol elvednek f scolyow primary school

scol nessa f scolyow secondary school Contrast an nessa scol = the nearest school

scol vêthryn f scolyow mêthryn nursery school

scolor f scoloryon pupil (school)

scon adj/adv soon

scons col sconsen scones

sconya reject, refuse Note construction sconya dhe nebonen gwil neppëth = forbid sb doing sth

scoodh f scodhow shoulder

scoos m scojow shield; protection See also in dadn scoos

scooskem scooskeow crash barrier

scor m scôrys score; rating

scornya scorn; satirize

scorpyon See an Scorpyon

scorr col scorren branches

scot bill (in restaurant etc)

scovarn f scovornow ear

scovarnak m scovarnogyon hare

scovarnygow pl earphones

scovva f scovvaow cubicle

scrambla scramble (eggs, message)

screfa (scrifa) write

screfor m screforyon writer

screw (kenter tro) m screwys screw

scrif m scrîvyow (scrifow) writing (specific); work (of author)

scrij m scrîjow shriek, scream

scrîja shriek, scream

scrin f scrînyow screen (all senses); shrine

scriven f scrivednow document

scruth m scruthow horror, shock See also gorra scruth in, kemeres scruth, perthy scruth

scruthus adj horrible, shocking

scrydel f scrydellow poster

scryp (jypser) scryppys satchel; briefcase

scrypt m scryptys script (play, film etc)

scryvynyas m scryvynysy secretary

scubel f scubellow broom

scubel sùgna f scubellow vacuum cleaner

scubel wolhy f scubellow mop

scubya brush, sweep

scubylen f scubylednow brush

scubylen dens f scubylednow toothbrush

scudel f scudellow dish (all senses)

scùllya spill; squander, waste

scùllyak adj wasteful

scùllyans spill[age]; waste

scûter m scûters scooter

seban soap

secùnd m secùnds second (time) See Numerals for use as ordinal

sedhek brusy m sedhegyon tribunal

sedhy sink, submerge; set (sun)

sëgh adj dry

seha dry

sehes thirst; *be thirsty

sel manylyon f sêlyow database

selder cellar(s)

sellys parys phr ready salted

selsyk col selsygen sausages

selvenm selveyn foundation; basis

selvenegor m selvenegoryon fundamentalist

selvenek adj fundamental, basic

selwel (sylwel) save

sêlya seal (all senses)

semlant m appearance (look)

sêmly adj handsome, attractive

sempel adj simple Comparative sempla


seneth m senedhow parliament

sens m sencys sense (≠ meaning) See also gwil sens

sens a gemusureth sense of proportion

sens a sprall frustration

sensor m sensoryon holder; stand (coats, hats, music)

sensor carg m sensoryon shipping container

sensor manegow m sensoryon glove compartment

sensy hold; keep; detain; consider (opinion) Note construction bos sensys dhe nebonen = be grateful to sb

sensy dh’y vrës concentrate on (sth)

sensytyf adj sensitive

sensyty·vyta sensitivity

seny sound; ring (bell) Pret sonas

serpont (sarf) m serpons snake

serry anger; get angry Verbal adj serrys is used for angry

serth adj rigid, upright; steep

servont m servons servant

servya serve

servyas m servysy server

servyour m servyours tray

servys m servyssyow service (all senses)

Servys [Kenedhlek] Yêhes The [National] Health Service (NHS)

sêson m sêsons season See also a’n sêson

sêsya seize

set m settys set (of sth)

seth m sethow jar

seth f sethow arrow

sethor m sethoryon remote [control] (television etc) See also an Sethor

settya set, place

settya dëdh phr make an appointment

settya moos phr lay the table

settya orth phr oppose

settya wor'gobren phr (dhe2) hire, rent, let (to sb)

sevel stand; stop (stand still) Pret sevys or savas Imperative sav

sevel in bàn phr stand up, get up (incl from bed)

sevel orth phr refrain from

sevel orth aswon phr ignore

sevur adj severe; reckless

sevureth severity; recklessness

sewt suit; colour (of garment)

sewt resegva tracksuit

sewt stanch wetsuit

sewya follow (all senses)

sewyans m sewyansow consequence; result, outcome

se·xieth sexism

seythen f seythednow week See also pedn seythen

shafta m shaftys shaft (in ground)

shakya shake

sham shame

shampên champagne

shampû shampoo

shâmya shame, humiliate

shanel an strêt m shanellow gutter (street)

shâp m shâpys shape

shâpya shape

shara m sharys share, portion; contribution

sherp (sharp) adj sharp (incl tone of voice)

sherys sherry

Shîyek adj Shia

shoppa m shoppys shop

shora m shorys attack (heart etc); fit (epilepsy)

show m showys show (entertainment or to impress)

showr (cals) a quant a lot of

shùgra sugar

shùgra leth lactose

shyndya damage, harm (sb, sth)

sia hum, buzz

sians whim See also herwyth sians

siansus adj temperamental (sb); arbitrary (sth)

sîcologyl adj psychological

Sîkyas m Sîkysy Sikh

sin m sînys sign See also gwil sin

sîna sign (all senses)

sînans signature

sîra dâ m sîrys dâ father-in-law

sîra wydn m sîrys gwydn grandfather

skech m skechys sketch (playlet)

skentyl adj intelligent; clever, smart (incl device, motorway)

sketh m skethow strip; long way

skethry chop (wood)

skethryk m skethrygow splinter

skeul f skeulyow ladder; scale (music)

skeul diank f skeulyow fire escape

skeus m skeusow shadow; shade; suspicion

skeus lugarn m skeusow lampshade

skeusednor m skeusenoryon photographer

skeusek adj shady; suspicious; spooky

skeusen (fô·tôgraf, fôtô) f skeusednow photo[graph]

skeuse·nieth (fôtôgra·fieth) photography

skevens pl lungs

skew wyns f skewyow gwyns windscreen

skia m/v no inflection ski(ing)

skians m skiansow knowledge, wisdom; intellect

skiansek adj skiansegyon knowledgeable, wise; intellectual

skîtel f skîtellow syringe

skîtya squirt; inject

skîtyans squirt; injection

sky m skis ski

skyber f skyberyow barn

skydnya (dhywar2) descend (from); dismount; get off (vehicle)

skyla (rag) reason (for)

sley adj clever, skilful

slynkresek skate (on ice)

slynkva f slynkvaow slipway

slynkya slide

slyppya slip; skid

snell adv quickly

snod m snôdys tape (for specific purpose: measuring, police, audio, video)

snod clos m snôdys cassette

snûker snooker

socour tròm first aid

socyal (cowethasek) adj social

socyalyth m socyalydhyon socialist

sodhak m sodhogyon officer; official

sodhogyl adj official

sodhva f sodhvaow office (place)

sodhva bost (lytherva) f sodhvaow post post office

sogh adj blunt

solabrës adv already

solempna adj solemn

sole·mpnyta ceremony

soler m soleryow loft; landing; gallery

solyd adj/m solydow solid

son m sonyow sound

sonor m sonoryon speaker (device)

soodh f sodhow office, post, position, job

soper m sopers supper

soposya suppose

sordya arouse; initiate; trigger; start (computer)

sordya marth in phr amaze

sorr anger

sorr ewn indignaton

sort m sortas hedgehog

sort m sortow sort, kind, variety

sos guy(s) addressing one or more people

sotel adj cunning (sb); subtle (sth)

soth adj/m south

soudor m soudoryon soldier

sowcer m sowcers saucer

sowen adj thriving, prosperous

sowena (sowenyans) prosperity; success

soweny prosper; succeed

sowe·th interj alas Also serves as emphatic adv unfortunately

sowman m sowmans salmon

sowndya sound (all senses)

sows sauce

sows cogh tomato sauce

Sowsnek adj/m English (incl language, optionally preceded by an)

sowthan bewilderment

sowthanas bewilder Verbal adjective sowthenys

spagetty spaghetti

spal m spalyow fine (penalty)

spâss m spâcys space, room; opportunity

specyal (especyal) adj/adv special; especially As attributive adj specyal precedes or follows its noun

specyfyk adj specific

specymen m specymens specimen

spêda success

spêdya [in] succeed (in); pass (examination) Note construction spêdya dhe wil neppëth = succeed in doing sth

spellya spell

spellyans spelling

spêna spend; use up

spencer m spencers dispenser

spencer mona m spencers cash machine

spessly adv especially

spîcek adj spicy, hot

spis See a verr spis

spit spite, malice

spîtys adj spiteful, malicious

spladn adj bright; splendid

spladna (shînya) shine

splat m splattys area (piece of land)

sponj (spong) m sponjow sponge (incl cake)

sponken squash (game)

sport sport; fun

spot a quant a bit of (especially sth intangible)

spralla hamper; frustrate

spredya spread (incl on bread etc)

spredyas m spredyasow spread (for bread etc)

sprusek adj nuclear

spynach spinach

spyrys (sperys) m spyryjyon spirit See also an Spyrys Sans

sqward (sqwerd) m sqwardyow tear (torn)

sqwardya (sqwerdya) tear, rip Verbal adjective sqwerdys

sqwat (scat) adv/m sqwattow with a bang; blow; break

sqwattya hit, swat; break Verbal adj sqwattys used also for abandoned, derelict (especially of a mine)

sqwith adj tired; bored

sqwîtha tire; bore

sqwîthus adj tiring; boring

sqwychel f sqwychellow switch (device)

sqwychya mes / rag phr switch off / on

sqwychys dhe barys phr on standby (device)

stâbel m stâblys (stâblyow) stable

stadyùm m stadya stadium

stag adj fixed

staga (dhe2) attach (to) Verbal adjective stegys

stagell f stagellow attachment; appendix (document)

stair m stairys stair

stalla m stallys stall (market, stable); stand (exhibition)

stamp m stampys stamp (incl postage) 

stampdollstamp duty

stampya stamp

stanch adj watertight; waterproof

standard adj/m standardys standard

stankya stamp (with foot) Verbal adj usually stankyes

stap m stappys step; stage (in process)

starnedhek (strothurek) adj structural

starneth (strothur) m starnedhow structure

stât m stâtys state (all senses); estate

stauns m stauncys stance, attitude

stêk m stêkys steak

sten tin

stenor m stenoryon tinner

ster col steren stars (incl celebrities)

steus m steusow series; course (medication)

stêvya rush, dash; swoop

stock m stockys stock (goods); block; pl stocks (finance, punishment)

stoff stuff (all senses)

stoffya stuff; stock (cupboard etc); cram (for examination)

stoffyas m stoffyasow stuffing

stoppya stop [up]; cut off (utility); stop (bus, train) Note construction stoppya dhe nebonen gwil neppëth = stop sb doing sth

stowt adj stubborn

strait adj strict; straight (sexuality) As adv with expressions of motion straight, directly

stranj (astranj) adj strange

stray See wàr stray

strayl m straylyow mat

straylyk m straylygow place mat; beer mat

strech delay

strechya stretch [out]; delay

strêmya stream (on-line)

strêt m strêtys street

strew m strewyow sneeze

strewy sneeze

strif strife, squabble

strifwerthf strifwerthow auction 

strîvya (gans, warbydn) strive, struggle

strîvyans effort

strocas m strocosow blow, stroke (incl medical)

stroll mess; litter

strollgystf strollgystyow litter bin

stroth adj/m strothow tight; strict; brace (teeth)

strotha tighten; squeeze; restrict

strus m strusyow ostrich

stubm m stubmow bend, curve

stubma bend; distort

studh m studhyow condition, state

studhya study

studhyans study, investigation

studhyor m studhyoryon student

styf f styfyow jet

styfya spray

styr m styryow meaning

styrya mean; explain (meaning of sth) See also hèn yw dhe styrya

sudronen f sudronednow drone (device)

sugal col rye

sùgan juice

sùgna suck

sùgnek adj juicy

Sul See de Sul      

sùm (sùbmen) m sùmys sum (calculation, amount)

sùmya sum up

Sùny adj Sunni

sur adj sure


surheans insurance

Surheans Kenedhlek National Insurance

swàn m swàns swan

swaysya swing [about], brandish

sygen f sygednow tag

sygen hash (may be abbreviated to hash) hash tag

sygera seep, ooze; smoulder; idle (engine)

syght sight (seeing, thing seen) Note construction yma syght + noun / adj wàr = look (have a particular look)

syllaben f syllabednow syllable

sylly f sylias eel

sym m symas monkey

syra (sera) m syrys sir

syrop m syropys syrup

sythel f sythlow strainer; filter

sythla strain; filter

syvy col syvien strawberries


tâbel m tâblys table (all senses); pl backgammon 

tabm m tybmyn bit, piece

tabm a quant a bit of

tabm dainty m tybmyn delicacy (to eat)

tabm ha tabm phr bit by bit

tabour m tabours drum (percussion)

tackya dêwla phr clap (hands)

taga choke, suffocate, strangle; clog Verbal adj tegys

tâl m tâlyow forehead, brow (incl hill)

taladow adj (dhe2) payable (to) (incl cheque)

tâlenep m tâlenebow façade

talent m talens talent

talkya (kestalkya) talk (conversation, dialogue)

talveja value (all senses)

tâlyk m tâlygow attic

tampon m tampons tampon

tan m tanow fire See also gorra tan in, kemeres tan

tanow creft pl fireworks

tanbeledna bomb

tanbellen f tanbelednow bomb

tanbrenm tanbrednyer match (for flame)

tanjys (tansys) blaze; bonfire

tank m tancow (all senses)

tanow adj thin; sparse; rare

tanow’hethin [out]

tanya start (engine)

tap m tappys tap

taran v tarednow thunder[bolt]

tardar m terder drill

tardh m tardhow burst; explosion

tardha burst, explode; erupt

tardra drill

taredna thunder; boom, roar

tarosvan illusion; ghost

tarosvanus adj illusory; ghostly

tarow m terewy bull See also an Tarow

tart m tartys tart

tas (sîra) m tasow father

tasek m tasygyon patron

tastya v taste

Tasyk Daddy

taunt adj cheeky; insolent

tava touch, feel (by touching) Verbal adjective tevys

tavas m tavosow tongue; language

tavasa scold

tavaseth m tavasedhow idiom

tavern (tavarn) m tavernyow pub

taw silence

tawesek adj silent

taxy m taxiow taxi


tê losowek herbal tea

tebel-1(2) pref evil, wicked

tebel-dyghtyaabuse Verbal adj tebel-dyghtys but no other inflection

tecken f teckednow moment (duraton, not point in time)

tecter beauty

tedha melt; thaw

tedn m tednow pull, tug; shot

tedna pull, tug; draw (incl weapon, not pictures); withdraw (money); shoot intr Note construction bos tednys dhe wil neppëth = have a tendency to do sth

tedna an dowr phr flush (toilet)

teg adj/adv beautiful, lovely, pretty; fair (incl play); quite (completely) As adv teg follows its adj

tegen f tegednow ornament, trinket

teknegor m teknegoryon technician

teknegyl adj technical

teknolo·gieth technology

teknyk m teknygow technique

templa (tempel) m templys temple

temprys adj moderate

temptacyon m temptacyons temptation

temptya tempt

tenewen m tenwednow flank, side

tent (tylda) m tentys tent

tenva tension; stress

tenva an mis PMT

tenys tennis

tera-1 pref tera-

terghya hack (computer)

termyn m termynyow time (concept, period, past or future, right time to do sth); term (academic)

ternos vyttyn phr tomorrow morning

terras m terracys terrace (for sitting)

terry break Pret torras

terry an jëdh dawn

terstuth crisis

teryas m terysy extremist

tesak adj sultry

tesen f tesednow cake

tesen gales f tesednow cales biscuit (sweet)

Test Jehôva m Testyon Jehova’s Witness

testen f testednow topic

testscrifm testscrîvyow (testscrifow) certificate

tesyans bÿsefan global warming

tethen f tethednow nipple; dummy (for baby)

tevy grow

tevyans growth; tumour

tevysak m tevysogyon adult

tew adj thick; dense; fat

tewas col tewesyn sand (material)

tewel be silent Imperative taw with internal object min, tavas

tew’hethicken; fatten

tewl adj dark

tewlder darkness


tewlwolow twilight

te·wolgow pl dark[ness]

text m textow text (all senses)

textya text

teyl manure; compost

teylu m teyluyow family

teythiak adj native; innate, inherent; idiomatic (speech)

teythy col attributes, abilities, character See also heb teythy specyal, meur y deythy

thêma m thêmaow theme

tia (lia) swear (oath) Verbal adj tës

tiak m tiogow farmer

tîger m tîgras tiger

tin f tinyon tail-end; bottom (anatomy)

tîp m tîpow type

tîpek adj typical

tir m tiryow land

tira land

tireth territory; terrain

tîtel m tîtlys title

to m tohow roof

tobm adj hot, warm

tobma heat

tobmans cresednek central heating

tobmer m tomeryow heater, radiator

TODN abbr (= Testscrif ‖ Ollkebmyn [an Dyscans Nessa]) GCSE

todn f todnow wave

todnek adj wavy; choppy (water); undulating

tôkyn m tôknys token; ticket

tôkyn mos ha dewheles m tôknys return ticket

tôkyn mos only m tôknys single ticket

toll m tell hole

toll f tollow tax

toll aneth council tax

toll daswerth VAT

toll ertans inheritance tax

toll negys business rates

toll wober income tax

Tollva an Wlas HM Revenue and Customs

ton m tonyow tone; tune; accent (manner of speech)

tona m tonys ton

tonya tune

toos dough; paste

toos (glus) dens toothpaste

top m topyow top (incl clothing)

torchen f torchednow torch

torment (tormont) m tormentys torment, torture

tormentya (tormontya) torment, torture

torn m tornow turn[ing] (all senses); shift (work); time (occasion) See also an eyl torn ... ha tres aral, i’n tor’-ma, i’n tor’-na, peswar torn

torn dâ m tornow good turn, favour

torr f torrow belly, abdomen

torrak (gans flogh) adj pregnant

torrva break; breach (contract, law); breakdown (car etc)

torrva gorhal (lester) shipwreck

torrva tredan power cut

torth f torthow loaf

torthen f torthednow bun

tosa knead; massage

toth speed

toth men phr quickly (emphatic)

toul m toulys tool

tour m tourow tower

touryst m tourystyon tourist

toury·stieth tourism

towal m towellow towel

towan m tewednow dune

towl m towlow throw; plan

tôwladow adj disposable

towlcostm towlcostow estimate (of cost)

towledna plan, schedule; program

towlednans planning

tôwlel throw

tôwlel golok wàr2 phr glance at

tôwlel towl phr make a plan

towlen f towlednow scheme; schedule; program[me] (all senses); app

tra taclow thing Singular is old neuter noun: treat as feminine for use with adjective and numeral udn but treat as masculine for pronoun reference and for use with numerals dew, try, peswar

tradycyon m tradycyons tradition

trady·cyonal adj traditional As attributive adj tradycyonal precedes or follows its noun

trailya turn; (dhe2) translate (into)

trailya dhyworth phr distract from

trailyans m trailyansow translation

train m trainys (trainow) train

traita betray

traitour m traitours traitor

tra·jedy m tra·jedys tragedy

tràm m tramyow tram

trank heb worfen eternity

trauma m trau·mata trauma

traweythyow adv sometimes, from time to time

tre f trevow town Also used as adj home Also used as adv home motion, back (returning)

trebeth m trebedhow tripod; flipchart

trebuchya stumble, trip

tredan electricity

tredanek adj electric[al]

tregeredhow pl odds-and-ends

trega (triga) See bos tregys (trigys) in

tregh mv trehow slice

treghvil m treghvilas insect

trehor m trehoryon tailor

trehy cut, slice Pret trohas

tremena [dre2, dres] pass Verbal adj tremenys also used for deceased

tremencubmyasm tremencumyasow passport

tremenva f tremenvaow passage, corridor

tremenyas m tremenysy passenger; passer-by

tremlywm tremlywyow make-up

tremyn look, expression (on face); aspect

treneyja flutter

trenk (trynk) adj sour

trenken f trenkednow acid

trenkles ‖ (tavol Tùrky) rhubarb

tresour m tresours treasure

trespasseth crime (generally)

trest *trust

trestya (trystya) (dhe2) trust

treth ferry (crossing)

treth m trethow beach (sand)

treus adj/adv bolshy; perverse (sth); askew

treuscorra transmit

treusfurvyor m treusfurvyoryon transformer (electricity)

treusgwyscor m treusgwyscoryon cross-dresser, transvestite

treusperthy transfer

treusreydhak adj treusreydhogyon transsexual

treusva f treusvaow crossing (level, zebra etc)

trevas f trevasow harvest; vintage (wine)

treveglos f treveglosyow churchtown, village

trevesygeth f trevesygethow settlement; colony

treveth m & f time (occasion)

trevna v, organize, arrange

trevnans organization (abstract), arrangement

trewa spit (saliva)

tria try (sth)

trial m trials trial (judicial)

trielyn m trielydnow triangle

trigva f trigvaow dwelling; address

trist adj sad

tristans sorrow

tro f troyow turn (all senses); time (occasion); round (drinks)

tro ha (wor’tu ha) prep towards

tro i’n dre / pow f troyow excursion

tro kerdhes f troyow stroll

troaskel f troeskelly helicopter

trobel m troblys trouble, bother

trobla trouble, bother; haunt (ghost)

trog m trogow box (deep); boot (car)

trog dyllas m trogow suitcase

trog tedna m trogow drawer

trogh adj/m trohow (treghyon) cracked, broken; cut; section

trockya (troghya) dip (into liquid)

trockya treys phr paddle

trom-1 pref sudden; pop-up (event); walk-in (service)

tron snout; trunk (elephant); nozzle

troos f treys foot; leg (of object); pedestal

troos'hësfoot (length)

troosow (treuthow) m & pl threshold 

troosvedhek m troosvedhygyon chiropodist

tros noise (loud) See also meur y dros

trosel f trosellow pedal

trosella peddle

trouvya (trôvya) find, discover (especially after search)

trouvyans (trôvyans) find. discovery

troyll f troyllyow spin, whirl; twist, twirl, spiral

troyllya spin, whirl; twist, twirl, spiral

truan adj poor, miserable (objectively)

trufyl adj/m truflys trifling; trifle (trifling thing)

trûlergh m trûlerhow [foot]path

trumach plesour cruise

trùmp m trùmpys trump

trùssa pack

trustrum bait

trùth m trùthas trout

tryger m trygers trigger

tu m tuyow side See a’n tu-ma dhe2, wàr an eyl tu ... wàr y gela, wàr an tu aral

tu arâg front (of sth)

tu warlergh back (of sth)

tùch quant a little (space or time)

tùchya touch (mostly figuratively), affect, concern See also ow tùchya

tùll deceit; disappointment

tùlla deceive

tùlla [govenek] phr disappoint

tùllwysk m tùllwyscow disguise

tù·lyfant m tù·lyfans turban

tûna m tûnas tuna

turont m turons tyrant; dictator

turo·ntieth tyranny; dictatorship

turya delve; rummage

tus dâ pl in-laws

tyby (teby) think (have ideas or opinions)

tybyans m tybyansow idea; opinion

tyckly adj delicate, tricky, awkward See also an bagas tyckly

tycky Duw m tycky Duwas butterfly

tydn adj tight; taut; painful; stressful

tydnyow pl tights

tygen f tygednow handbag; wallet

tyller (teller) m tyleryow place, location; room (space)

tylly pay (what is due) Note constructions y tal(via) + verb-noun = it is / will be / was worth (doing sth) and ev a dal(via) / y tal(via) dhodho + verb-noun = he ought to (have), he should (have)

tysk (dornas) m & f tyscow handful

tysk flourys m tyscow bunch of flowers

tythus adj sparkling, fizzy (drink)



udnya unify, unite See also an Kenedhlow Udnys

udnyans See an Udnyans Ewrôpek

udnyk adj sole, only; unique; singular

ufern m ufernyow ankle

ughboyntm ughboyntys maximum

ughboyntek adj maximum

uhel adj high; tall (sth); loud Comparative uhella (uhelha)

uhelder height; volume

uheldir m uheldiryow high ground

uhelwhans m uhelwhansow ambition

uhelwhansekadj ambitious

uj m ujow scream, wail

uja scream, wail

ûla m ûlys owl

ùncoth (ancoth) adj unknown, strange

ùnderstondya (ûnderstandya) understand

ùnderstondyng (ûnderstandyng) understanding

ùnlafyl (anlafyl) adj unlawful, illegal

ùnpossybyl adj impossible

unsys m unsysow unity; unit, module

unweyth arta phr [once] again, once more

unvereth cohesion, solidarity (spirit, outlook, opinion)

unverhësadj unanimous

unwos adj related (by blood); cognate (words)

û·nyvers m ûnyversow universe

ûnyve·rsyta (penscol) m ûnyve·rsytys (ûnyve·rsytas) university

ura lubricate

uras m urasow lubricant

ûsadow custom, habit

uskys adj fast, quick, rapid

uskys'hespeed [up], accelerate

ûsya use Verbal adj ûsys also employed for usual Note construction ev a wrug ûsya gwil neppëth = he used to do sth

ûsys ha due phr worn out

uthyk adj terrible, dreadful, awful

uvel adj humble, modest


valew value

valy m valys valley

vanyla vanilla

vanyshya (vansya) vanish, disappear

varya vary Verbal adjective varys is also used for delirious; deranged

vas adj fixed 2nd state good, useful, advantageous, effective

venjans (dial) revenge

verb m verbow verb

versyon m versyons version

very adj very Note that very precedes its noun, and is not used as adv to qualify adj

very nebes phr very little / few

veyl m veylys veil

viaj m viajys journey, trip

viaj jorna m viajys day trip

VID-posytyf adj HIV positive

vil adj vile

vîrek adj viral (all senses)

vîrùs m vîrùsow virus (all senses)

vîsa m vîsas visa

vogalen f vogalednow vowel

vôta (raglef) m vôtys vote

vôtya (ragleva) vote

voward front[line]

vu m vuys view See also dhe’n kensa vu

vyctory m vyctorys victory

vyctym (a2) vyctymys victim (of)

vysour m vysours visor; mask

vysyt m vysytys visit

vysytya visit


war adj wary, cautious

wàr an dyweth phr finally, eventually, at last

wàr an eyl tu ... wàr y gela phr on the one hand ... on the other hand

wàr an tu (tenewen) aral phr on the other hand

wàr dhelergh phr backwards motion

wàr dûta phr on duty

wàr gàm phr steadily, carefully

wàr lînen phr on line

wàr nans (in nans) phr down motion

wàr nùk phr immediately

wàr stray phr lost

wàr verr lavarow phr briefly, concisely

warbarth adv together

warleny adv last year

warrantya guarantee

wast waist

wèl interj well

west adj/m west

whans *desire

whansa desire Verbal adj whensys Note construction bos whensys dhe + verb-noun = wish to, want to, be inclined to See also whensys dhe wodhvos

whar adj gentle; humane

wharê adv presently


wharheans civilization

wharth laugh[ter]

wharthus adj comic, funny; ridiculous

wharvedhyans m wharvedhyansow occurrence, event

wharvos (darvos) happen, occur

what m whattys slap; pat (on back etc)

whath adv still, yet See also na whath

whecter sweetness; pleasantness

whedh m whedhow swelling

whedhel m whedhlow story, tale; rumour

whedhy swell

wheg adj sweet; pleasant; dear (in salutation)

wheg ha trenk phr sweet and sour


whegydnow (whegednow) pl sweets

whej vomit, sick

wheja vomit, be sick

whel m & f whelyow work (on-going); mine

whelas (whilas) seek, look for; + verb-noun try to

whêldrof whêldroyow revolution

whensys dhe wodhvos phr curious, inquisitive

wherow adj bitter

wherowder bitterness

wherthyn laugh

whës sweat, perspiration

whesa sweat, perspire

wheth air m whethow draught

whetha blow; exaggerate

whethfy (hothfy) inflate (balloon etc); amplify (sound)

whethfyans inflation

Whevrel See mis Whevrel        

whiogen (hogen, fûgen) f whiogednow pastry (cake, pie)

whor f wheryth sister

whyb m whybow whistle (for blowing)

whyban whistle (sound)

whybana whistle

whydn col whadnen fleas

whyl m whylas beetle

whyl tan moped

whystra whisper

whystrans m whystransow whisper

whytel m whytlow shawl

whythra [orth] inspect; explore, investigate, research

whythrans inspection; exploration, investigation, research

wolcùbma (welcùbma) welcome

wolcùm (welcùm) adj/m welcome

wor’taswerth phr second-hand

wosa (woja) prep + noun, non-personal pron, verb-noun, infinitive construction after See also a’y wosa

wosa pùptraphr after all

wostallath adv to begin with, at first

wosteweth (worteweth) adv in the end, ultimately


y honen oll phr [all] on his own, alone

yagh adj healthy (sb and figuratively)

yaghheheal, cure (sb)

yahus adj healthy (sth), therapeutic

yar f yer hen

yar Gyny (tùrky) turkey

Yêdhow m Yêdhewon Jew

yêhes health

yet m yettys gate

yêth f yêthow language

Yêth an Weryn Yeth an Werin (Cornish conversation group)

yêwnadow craving, yearning

yêwny crave, yearn for

yêyn adj cold

yêynder cold(ness), chill

yêyner m yêyneryow refrigerator

yn fen adv vigorously

yogùrt yoghurt

yonk adj young Comparative yonca

yos kergh porridge

Yow See de Yow

yowynkneth youth

ÿs wheg col ÿsen maize, sweetcorn

ÿst adj/m east


zyp (kevren vew) m zyppys zip