Conversation patterns


PATRONYS A GESCOWS / CONVERSATION PATTERNS

 

Ian Jackson, July 2020



Skeusen / Photo: ThrivePiano.com

gans grassow / with thanks


Cornish verbs require constant practice for fluency. It is not enough to learn tables of verbs. You must also practise typical sentences in which the verbs occur. You can use each Conversation Pattern as a ‘recipe’ to make a batch of sentences, with vocabulary you know well, mixed up with some words that you need to know better. It’s the language equivalent of practising scales on the piano. Essential.

These Conversation Patterns are in the relatively formal style taught in Skeul an Tavas © 2010 Ray Chubb. That is the best starting-point for beginners. However, F and GH in word-final position are sounded only very lightly or not at all, so apostrophes have been substituted (with yth spelled th’), as an aid to good pronunciation. When wrug forms past tenses of other verbs it is reduced in pronunciation to [rig].

It is worth remembering that ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ in colloquial Cornish are rendered perfectly well by invariable ‘yes’ and ‘no’. Answering a question by repeating the verb is always elegant, never necessary. You should certainly not answer with an inappropriate form of the verb. So Osta ...? may be answered Ov or / Nag ov or , but should not be answered Yw / Nag yw.

Statements comprising pronoun subject + particle a + impersonal verb can alternatively be constructed with particle y + inflected verb + optional pronoun subject. This can sometimes be stylistically preferable in writing, but it is rare in straightforward conversation.

Be careful how you use the preterite tense of bos in Cornish. The preterite of bos with particle a is usually eventive: e.g. hy a veu behek (or torrak) ‘she became pregnant’, hy a veu genys ‘she was born’, hy a veu marow ‘she died’. The preterite of bos with particle re is not used for expressions like ‘I have been in Cornwall for a long time’ – that is, th’eso’vy in Kernow nans yw termyn pell. Likewise, ‘I have been in Camborne since March’ is th’eso’vy in Cambron dhia vis Merth.

The old pluperfect tense is now exclusively a conditional tense in modern Cornish except in high literary registers. In ordinary conversation and prose we use an ordinary past tense (imperfect for states, preterite for events), with an adverb like kyns or solabrës to indicate anterior time if the context alone is not sufficient.

For all purposes of fluent conversation in traditional Cornish it is enough to learn how to inflect the verbs bos, gwil, mydnas, gallos, godhvos, dos, together with the present and conditional tenses of cara; to recognize the second person imperative of any verb (but there is no inflected imperative in conversational use for verbs with verb-noun ending -ya or -yas); to recognize the impersonal preterite form of every verb; to form the verbal adjective (so called ‘past participle’) of every verb. You will also learn a few inflected presents in fixed phrases: e.g. dell gresa’, dell hevel. All other inflected verbs are purely literary, and many present-future forms are confined almost exclusively to poetry.


1.  MY HA TY

 

1.1  HA COMPLEMENT PÒ TYLLER GANSO / WITH COMPLEMENT OR PLACE


1.1.1  PRESENT / PRESENT

 

Osta ...?  Are you ...?

Ov, me yw ... or Ov, ... ov vy  Yes, I am ...

Nag ov, nyns ov vy ...  No, I am not ...

 

Esta ...?  Are you ...? (in a place)

Eso’, th’eso’vy ...  Yes, I am ... (in a place)

Nag eso’, nyns eso’vy ...  No, I am not ... (in a place)

 

1.1.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST

 

Es jy ...?  Were you ...?

En, me o ... or En, ... en vy  Yes, I was ...

Nag en, nyns en vy ...  No, I wasn’t ...


Eses jy ...?  Were you ...? (in a place)

Esen, th’esen vy ...  Yes, I was ... (in a place)

Nag esen, nyns esen vy ...  No, I wasn’t ... (in a place)


A veusta ...?  Were you ...?

Beuv, me a veu ... or Beuv, ... [a] veuv vy  Yes, I was ...

Na veuv, ny veuv vy ...  No, I wasn’t ...

 

A veusta ...?  Have you been ...?

Beuv, my re beu ...  Yes, I have been ...

Na veuv, ny veuv vy ...  No, I haven’t been ...


1.1.3  TERMYN A DHEU / FUTURE


A vedhys jy ...?  Will you be ...?

Bedha’, me a vëdh ... or Bedha’, ... [a] vedha’vy  Yes, I’ll be ...

Na vedha’, ny vedha’vy ...  No, I won’t be ...


1.1.4  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL TENSE


A vies jy ...?  Would you be ...?

Bien, me a via ... or Bien, ... [a] vien vy  Yes, I would be ...

Na vien, ny vien vy ...  No, I wouldn’t be ...

 

1.2  GWIL NEPPYTH / DOING SOMETHING


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


1.2.1  PRESENT / PRESENT


Esta ow4 ....?  Are you ...? Do you ...?

Eso’, th’eso’vy ow4 ...  Yes, I am ... Yes, I do ...

Nag eso’, nyns eso’vy ow4 ...  No, I am not ... No, I don’t ...


1.2.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST


Esen vy ow4 ...?  Were you ...?

Esen, th’esen vy ow4 ...  Yes, I was ...

Nag esen, nyns esen vy ow4 ...  No, I wasn’t ...


A wrusta ...?  Did you ...? Have you ...?

Gwrug, me a wrug ...  Yes, I did ...

Gwrug, my re wrug ...  Yes, I have ...

Na wrug, ny wrug vy ...  No, I didn’t ... No, I haven’t ...


1.2.3  TERMYN A DHEU / FUTURE


A vynta ...?  or A wrêta ...? or A vedhys jy ow4 ...?  Will you ...?

Mydna’, me a vydn ... or Gwrav, me a wra ... or Bedha’, me a vëdh ow4 ...  Yes, I’ll ...

Na vydna’, ny vydna’vy ... or Na wrav, ny wrav vy ... or Na vedha’, ny vedha’vy ow4 ...  No, I won’t ...


1.2.4  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL TENSE


A venses jy ...? or A vies jy ow4 ...?  Would you ...?

Mensen, me a vensa ... or Bien, me a via ow4 ...  Yes, I would ...

Na vensen, ny vensen vy... or Na vien, ny vien vy ow4 ...  No, I wouldn’t ...


1.3  GALLOS NEPPYTH / CAN DO SOMETHING (power, opportunity, permission)


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


1.3.1  PRESENT-DEVEDHEK / PRESENT-FUTURE


A alla’vy ...?  Can I ...? or May I ...? or Will I be able to ...?

Gyllyth, te a yll ...  Yes, you can ... or Yes, you may ... or Yes, you’ll be able to ...

Na yllyth, ny ylta ...  No, you can’t ... or No, you may not ... or No, you won’t be able to ...


A ylta ....?  Can you ...? or Will you be able to ...?

Galla’, me a yll ...  Yes, I can ... or Yes, I’ll be able to ...

Na alla’, ny alla’vy ...  No, I can’t ... or No, I won’t be able to ...


1.3.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST


All formed with the imperfect tense. The preterite of gallos is confined exclusively to the literary language.

 

A yllys jy ...?  Could you ...? or Were you able to ...? or Have you been able to ...?

Gyllyn, me a ylly ...  Yes, I could ... or Yes, I was able to... or Yes, I have been able to ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn vy ...  No, I couldn’t ... or No, I wasn’t able to ... or No, I haven’t been able to ...


1.3.3  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL


The conditional of gallos is rare outside sentences where ‘if’ is expressed. The present-future is usually substituted in queries and requests.


A ylta ...? or A alses jy ...?  Could you ...? or Would you be able to ...?

Galla’, me a yll ... or Galsen, me a alsa ...  Yes, I could ... or Yes, I would be able to ...

Na alla’, ny alla’vy ... or Na alsen, ny alsen vy ...  No, I couldn’t ... or No, I wouldn’t be able to ...


1.4  GODHVOS NEPPYTH / CAN DO SOMETHING (knowledge, something learned)


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


1.4.1  PRESENT

 

A wosta ...?  Can you ...?

Gora’, me a wor ...  Yes, I can ...

Na wora’, ny wora’ ...  No, I can’t ...


1.4.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST

 

A wodhyes jy ...?  Could you ...?

Godhyen, me a wodhya ...  Yes, I could ...

Na wodhyen, ny wodhyen vy ...  No, I couldn’t ...


2.  MY / NY, HA WHY

 

2.1  HA COMPLEMENT PÒ TYLLER GANSO / WITH COMPLEMENT OR PLACE


2.1.1  PRESENT / PRESENT


Ow’why ...?  Are you ...?

Ov, me yw ... or Ov, ... ov vy  Yes, I am ...

On, ny yw ... or On, ... on ny  Yes, we are ...

Nag ov, nyns ov vy ...  No, I am not ...

Nag on, nyns on ny ...  No, we are not ...

 

Esow’why ...?  Are you ...? (in a place)

Eso’, th’eso’vy ...  Yes, I am ... (in a place)

Eson, th’eson ny ...  Yes, we are ... (in a place)

Nag eso’, nyns eso’vy ...  No, I am not ... (in a place)

Nag eson, nyns eson ny ...  No, we are not ... (in a place)

 

2.1.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST


Ew’why ...?  Were you ...?

En, me o ... or En, ... en vy  Yes, I was ...

En, ny o ... or En, ... en ny  Yes, we were ...

Nag en, nyns en vy ...  No, I wasn’t ...

Nag en, nyns en ny ...  No, we weren’t ...


Esew’why ...?  Were you ...? (in a place)

Esen, th’esen vy ...  Yes, I was ... (in a place)

Esen, th’esen ny ...  Yes, we were ... (in a place)

Nag esen, nyns esen vy ...  No, I wasn’t ... (in a place)

Nag esen, nyns esen ny ...  No, we weren’t ... (in a place)


A vew’why ...?  Were you ...?

Beuv, me a veu ...  or Beuv, ... [a] veuv vy  Yes, I was ...

Beun, ny re beu ...  or Beun, ... [a] veun ny  Yes, we were ...

Na veuv, ny veuv vy ...  No, I wasn’t ...

Na veun, ny veun ny ...  No, we weren’t ...

 

A vew’why ...?  Have you been ...?

Beuv, me re beu ...  Yes, I have been ...

Beun, ny re beu ...  Yes, we have been ...

Na veuv, ny veuv vy ...  No, I haven’t been ...

Na veun, ny veun ny ...  No, we haven’t been ...


2.1.3  TERMYN A DHEU / FUTURE


A vedhow’why ...?  Will you be ...?

Bedha’, me a vëdh ... or Bedha’, ... [a] vedha’vy  Yes, I’ll be ...

Bedhyn, ny a vëdh ...  or Bedhyn, ... [a] vedhyn ny  Yes, we’ll be ...

Na vedha’, ny vedha’vy ...  No, I won’t be ...

Na vedhyn, ny vedhyn ny ...  No, we won’t be ...


2.1.4  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL


A view’why ...?  Would you be ...?

Bien, me a via ...  or Bien, ... [a] vien vy  Yes, I would be ...

Bien, ny a via ... or Bien, ... [a] vien ny  Yes, we would be ...

Na vien, ny vien vy ...  No, I wouldn’t be ...

Na vien, ny vien ny ...  No, we wouldn’t be ...

 

2.2  GWIL NEPPYTH / DOING SOMETHING


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


2.2.1  PRESENT / PRESENT

 

Esow’why ow4 ....?  Are you ...? or Do you ...?

Eso’, th’eso’vy ow4 ...  Yes, I am ... Yes, I do ...

Eson, th’eson ny ow4 ...  Yes, we are ... or Yes, we do ...

Nag eso’, nyns eso’vy ow4 ...  No, I am not ... No, I don’t ...

Nag eson, nyns eson ny ow4 ...  No, we are not ... or No, we don’t ...


2.2.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST

 

Esew’why ow4 ...?  Were you ...?

Esen, th’esen vy ow4 ...  Yes, I was ...

Esen, th’esen ny ow4 ...  Yes, we were ...

Nag esen, nyns esen vy ow4 ...  No, I wasn’t ...

Nag esen, nyns esen ny ow4 ...  No, we weren’t ...


A wrussow’why ...?  Did you ...? or Have you ...?

Gwrug, me a wrug ...  Yes, I did ...

Gwrussyn, ny a wrug ...  Yes, we did ...

Gwrug, my re wrug ...  Yes, I have ...

Gwrussyn, ny re wrug ...  Yes, we have ...

Na wrug, ny wrug vy ...  No, I didn’t ... No, I haven’t ...

Na wrussyn, ny wrussyn ny ...  No, we didn’t ... or   No, we haven’t ...


2.2.3  TERMYN A DHEU / FUTURE


A vydnow’why ...? or A wrew’why ...? or A vedhow’why ow4 ...?  Will you ...?

Mydna’, me a vydn ... or Gwrav, me a wra ... or Bedha’, me a vëdh ow4 ...  Yes, I’ll ...

Mydnyn, ny a vydn ... or Gwren, ny a wra ... or Bedhyn, ny a vëdh ow4 ...  Yes, we’ll ...

Na vydna’, ny vydna’vy ... or Na wrav, ny wrav vy ... or Na vedha’, ny vedha’vy ow4 ...  No, I won’t ...

Na vydnyn, ny vydnyn ny ... or Na wren, ny wren ny ... or Na vedhyn, ny vedhyn ny ow4 ...  No, we won’t ...


2.2.4  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL TENSE


A vensew’why ...? or A view’why ow4 ...?  Would you ...?

Mensen, me a vensa ... or Bien, me a via ow4 ...  Yes, I would ...

Mensen, ny a vensa ... or Bien, ny a via ow4 ...  Yes, we would ...

Na vensen, ny vensen vy ... or Na vien, ny vien vy ow4 ...  No, I wouldn’t ...

Na vensen, ny vensen ny ... or Na vien, ny vien ny ow4 ...  No, we wouldn’t ...


2.3  GALLOS NEPPYTH / CAN DO SOMETHING (power, opportunity, permission)


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


2.3.1  PRESENT-DEVEDHEK / PRESENT-FUTURE


A yllyn ny ...?  Can we ...? or May we ...? or Will we be able to ...?

Gyllowgh, why a yll ...  Yes, you can ... or Yes, you may ... or Yes, you’ll be able to ...

Na yllowgh, ny yllow’why ...  No, you can’t ... or No, you may not ... or No, you won’t be able to ...


A yllow’why ....?  Can you ...? or Will you be able to ...?

Galla’, me a yll ...  Yes, I can ... or Yes, I’ll be able to ...

Gyllyn, ny a yll ...  Yes, we can ... or Yes, we’ll be able to ...

Na alla’, ny alla’vy ...  No, I can’t ... or No, I won’t be able to ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn ny ...  No, we can’t ... or No, we won’t be able to ...


2.3.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST


All formed with the imperfect tense. The preterite of gallos is confined exclusively to the literary language.


A yllew’why ...?  Could you ...? or Were you able to ...? or Have you been able to ...?

Gyllyn, me a ylly ...  Yes, I could ... or Yes, I was able to... or Yes, I have been able to ...

Gyllyn, ny a ylly ...  Yes, we could or Yes, we were able to ... or Yes, we have been able to ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn vy ...  No, I couldn’t ... or No, I wasn’t able to ... or No, I haven’t been able to ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn ny ...  No, I couldn’t ... or No, I wasn’t able to ... or No, I haven’t been able to ... 


2.3.3  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL


The conditional of gallos is rare outside sentences where ‘if’ is expressed. The present-future is usually substituted in queries and requests.


A yllow’why ....? or A alsew’why ...?  Could you ...? or Would you be able to ...?

Galla’, me a yll ... or Galsen, me a alsa ...  Yes, I could ... or Yes, I would be able to ...

Gyllyn, ny a yll ... or Galsen, ny a alsa ...  Yes, we could ... or Yes, we would be able to ...

Na alla’, ny alla’vy ... or Na alsen, ny alsen vy ...  No, I couldn’t ... or No, I wouldn’t be able to ...

Na yllyn, ny yllyn ny ... or Na alsen, ny alsen ny ...  No, we couldn’t ... or No, we wouldn’t be able to ...


2.4  GODHVOS NEPPYTH / CAN DO SOMETHING (knowledge, something learned)


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


2.4.1  PRESENT

 

A worow’why ...?  Can you ...?

Gora’, me a wor ...  Yes, I can ...

Goryn, ny a wor ... Yes, we can ...

Na wora’, ny wora’vy ...  No, I can’t ...

Na woryn, ny woryn ny ...  No, we can’t ...


2.4.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST

 

A wodhyew’why ...?  Could you ...?

Godhyen, me a wodhya ...  Yes, I could ...

Godhyen, ny a wodhya ...  Yes, we could ...

Na wodhyen, ny wodhyen vy ...  No, I couldn’t ...

Na wodhyen, ny wodhyen ny ...  No, we couldn’t ...


3.  EV

 

Ev may mean ‘he’ or ‘it’ according to context. Hy (meaning ‘she’ or ‘it’ according to context) will be substituted for ev to refer to a female person or a feminine noun.

 

3.1  HA COMPLEMENT PÒ TYLLER GANSO / WITH COMPLEMENT OR PLACE


3.1.1  PRESENT / PRESENT

 

Yw ev ...?  Is he ...?

Yw, ev yw ... or Yw, ... yw ev  Yes, he is ...

Nag yw, nyns yw ev ...  No, he is not ...

 

Usy ev ...?  Is he ...? (in a place)

Usy, yma ev ...  Yes, he is ... (in a place)

Nag usy, nyns usy ev ...  No, he is not ... (in a place)

 

3.1.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST

 

O ev ...?  Was he  ...? (state)

O, ev o ... or O, ... o ev  Yes, he was ... (state)

Nag o, nyns o ev ...  No, he wasn’t ... (state)


Esa ev ...?  Was he ...? (in a place)

Esa, th’esa ev ...  Yes, he was ... (in a place)

Nag esa, nyns esa ev ...  No, he wasn’t ... (in a place)


A veu ev ...?  Was he ...? (event)

Beu, ev a veu ...  or Beu, ... [a] veu ev  Yes, he was ... (event)

Na veu, ny veu ev ...  No, he wasn’t ... (event)


A veu ev ...?  Has he been ...?

Beu, ev re beu ...  Yes, he has been ...

Na veu, ny veu ev ...  No, he hasn’t been ...


3.1.3  TERMYN A DHEU / FUTURE


A vëdh ev ...?  Will he be ...?

Bëdh, ev a vëdh ...  or Bëdh, ... [a] vëdh ev  Yes, he’ll be ...

Na vëdh, ny vëdh ev ...  No, he won’t be ...


3.1.4  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL


A via ev ...?  Would he be ...?

Bia, ev a via ... or Bia, ... [a] via ev  Yes, he would be ...

Na via, ny via ev ...  No, he wouldn’t be ...

 

3.2  GWIL NEPPYTH / DOING SOMETHING


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


3.2.1  PRESENT / PRESENT


Usy ev ow4 ....?  Is he ...? or Does he ...?

Usy, yma ev ow4 ...  Yes, he is ... or Yes, he does ...

Nag usy, nyns usy ev ow4 ...  No, he is not ... or No, he doesn’t ...


3.2.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST

 

Esa ev ow4 ...?  Was he ...?

Esa, th’esa ev ow4 ...  Yes, he was ...

Nag esa, nyns esa ev ow4 ...  No, he wasn’t ...


A wrug ev ...?  Did he ...? or Has he ...?

Gwrug, ev a wrug ...  Yes, he did ...

Gwrug, ev re wrug ...  Yes, he has ...

Na wrug, ny wrug ev ...  No, he didn’t ... or No, he hasn’t ...


3.2.3  TERMYN A DHEU / FUTURE

 

A vydn ev...? or A wra ev...? or A vëdh ev ow4 ...?  Will he ...?

Mydn, ev a vydn ... or Gwra, ev a wra ... or Bëdh, ev a vëdh ow4 ...   Yes, he’ll ...

Na vydn, ny vydn ev ... or Na wra, ny wra ev ... or Na vëdh, ny vëdh ev ow4 ...  No, he won’t ...

 

3.2.4  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL


A vensa ev ...? or A wrussa ev ...? or A via ev ow4 ...?  Would he ...?

Mensa, ev a vensa ... or Gwrussa, ev a wrussa ... or Bia, ev a via ow4 ...  Yes, he would ...

Na vensa, ny vensa ev ... or Na wrussa, ny wrussa ev ... or Na via, ny via ev ow4 ...  No, he wouldn’t ...

 

3.3  GALLOS NEPPYTH / CAN DO SOMETHING (power, opportunity, permission)


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


3.3.1  PRESENT-DEVEDHEK / PRESENT-FUTURE


A yll ev ...?  Can he ...? or May he ...? or Will he be able to ...?

Gyll, ev a yll ...  Yes, he can ... or Yes, he may ... or Yes, he’ll be able to ...

Na yll, ny yll ev ...  No, he can’t ... or No, he may not ... or No, he won’t be able to ...


3.3.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST


All formed with the imperfect tense. The preterite of gallos is confined exclusively to the literary language.

 

A ylly ev ...?  Could he ...? or Was he able to ...? or Has he been able to ...?

Gylly, ev a ylly ...  Yes, he could ... or Yes, he was able to... or Yes, he has been able to ...

Na ylly, ny ylly ev ...  No, he couldn’t ... or No, he wasn’t able to ... or No, he hasn’t been able to ...


3.3.3  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL


The conditional of gallos is rare outside sentences where ‘if’ is expressed. The present-future is usually substituted in queries and requests.


A yll ev ...? or A alsa ev ...?  Could he ...? or Would he be able to ...?

Gyll, ev a yll ... or Galsa, ev a alsa ...  Yes, he could ... or Yes, he would be able to ...

Na yll, ny yll ev or Na alsa, ny alsa ev ...  No, he couldn’t ... or No, he wouldn’t be able to ...


3.4  GODHVOS NEPPYTH / CAN DO SOMETHING (knowledge, something learned)


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


3.4.1  PRESENT

 

A wor ev ...?  Can he ...?

Gor, ev a wor ...  Yes, he can ...

Na wor, ny wor ev ...  No, he can’t ...


3.4.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST

 

A wodhya ev ...?  Could he ...?

Godhya, ev a wodhya ...  Yes, he could ...

Na wodhya, ny wodhya ev ...  No, he couldn’t


4.  ANJY

 

Anjy usually replaces earlier y ‘they’ before a particle or yw / o.

 

4.1  HA COMPLEMENT PÒ TYLLER GANSO / WITH COMPLEMENT OR PLACE


4.1.1  PRESENT / PRESENT

 

Yns y ...?  Are they ...?

Yns, anjy yw ... or Yns, ... yns y  Yes, they are ...

Nag yns, nyns yns y ...  No, they are not ...

 

Usons y ...?  Are they ...? (in a place)

Usons, ymowns y ...  Yes, they are ... (in a place)

Nag usons, nyns usons y ...  No, they are not ... (in a place)


4.1.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST


Êns y ...?  Were they ...?

Êns, anjy o ... or Êns, ... êns y  Yes, they were ...

Nag êns, nyns êns y ...  No, they weren’t ...


Esens y ...?  Were they ...? (in a place)

Esens, th’esens y ...  Yes, they were ... (in a place)

Nag esens, nyns esens y ...  No, they weren’t ... (in a place)


A vowns y ...?  Were they ...? (event)

Bowns, anjy a veu ... or Bowns, ... [a] vowns y  Yes, they were ... (event)

Na vowns, ny vowns y ...  No, they weren’t ... (event)


A vowns y ...?  Have they been ...? (event)

Bowns, anjy re beu ...  Yes, they have been ... (event)

Na vowns, ny vowns y ...  No, they haven’t been ... (event)

 

4.1.3  TERMYN A DHEU / FUTURE


A vedhons y ...?  Will they be ...?

Bedhons, anjy a vëdh ...  or Bedhons, ... [a] vedhons y  Yes, they’ll be ...

Na vedhons, ny vedhons y ...  No, they won’t be ...


4.1.4  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL


A viens y ...?  Would they be ...?

Biens, anjy a via ... or Biens, ... [a] viens y  Yes, they would be ...

Na viens, ny viens y ...  No, they wouldn’t be ...

 

4.2  GWIL NEPPYTH / DOING SOMETHING


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


4.2.1  PRESENT / PRESENT


Usons y ev ow4 ....?  Are they ...? or Do they ...?

Usons, ymowns y ow4 ...  Yes, they are ... or Yes, they do ...

Nag usons, nyns usons y ow4 ...  No, they are not ... or No, they don’t ...


4.2.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST

 

Esens y ow4 ...?  Were they ...?

Esens, th’esens y ow4 ...  Yes, they were ...

Nag esens, nyns esens y ow4 ...  No, they weren’t ...


A wrussons y ...?  Did they ...? or Have they ...?

Gwrussons, anjy a wrug ...  Yes, they did ...

Gwrussons, anjy re wrug ...  Yes, they have ...

Na wrussons, ny wrussons y ...  No, they didn’t ... or No, they haven’t ...


4.2.3  TERMYN A DHEU / FUTURE

 

A vydnons y ...? or A wrowns y...? or A vedhons y ow4 ...?  Will they ...?

Mydnons, anjy a vydn ... or Gwrowns, anjy a wra ... or Bedhons, anjy a vëdh ow4 ...   Yes, they’ll ...

Na vydnons, ny vydnons y ... or Na wrowns, ny wrowns y ... or Na vedhons, ny vedhons y ow4 ...  No, they won’t ...

 

4.2.4  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL


A vensens y ...? or A viens y ow4 ...?  Would they ...?

Mensens, anjy a vensa ... or Biens, anjy a via ow4 ...  Yes, they would ...

Na vensens, ny vensens y ... or Na viens, ny viens y ow4 ...  No, they wouldn’t ...

 

4.3  GALLOS NEPPYTH / CAN DO SOMETHING (power, opportunity, permission)


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


4.3.1  PRESENT-DEVEDHEK / PRESENT-FUTURE


A yllons y ...?  Can they ...? or May they ...? or Will they be able to ...?

Gyllons, anjy a yll ...  Yes, they can ... or Yes, they may ... or Yes, they’ll be able to ...

Na yllons, ny yllons y ...  No, they can’t ... or No, they may not ... or No, they won’t be able to ...


4.3.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST


All formed with the imperfect tense. The preterite of gallos is confined exclusively to the literary language.

 

A yllons y ...?  Could they ...? or Were they able to ...? or Have they been able to ...?

Gyllons, anjy a ylly ...  Yes, they could ... or Yes, they were able to... or Yes, they have been able to ...

Na yllons, ny yllons y  ...  No, they couldn’t ... or No, they weren’t able to ... or No, they haven’t been able to ...


4.3.3  AMSER AMBOSEK / CONDITIONAL


The conditional of gallos is rare outside sentences where ‘if’ is expressed. The present-future is usually substituted in queries and requests.


A yllons y ...? or A alsens y ...?  Could they ...? or Would they be able to ...?

Gyllons, anjy a yll ... or Galsens, anjy a alsa ...  Yes, they could ... or Yes, they would be able to ...

Na yllons, ny yllons y or Na alsens, ny alsens y ...  No, they couldn’t ... or No, they wouldn’t be able to ...


4.4  GODHVOS NEPPYTH / CAN DO SOMETHING (knowledge, something learned)


Ha verb-hanow gansans oll / All with verb-noun


4.4.1  PRESENT

 

A wodhons y ...?  Can they ...?

Godhons, anjy a wor ...  Yes, they can ...

Na wodhons, ny wodhons y ...  No, they can’t ...


4.4.2  TERMYN PASSYS / PAST

 

A wodhya ev ...?  Could he ...?

Godhya, ev a wodhya ...  Yes, he could ...

Na wodhya, ny wodhya ev ...  No, he couldn’t