Gerlyver Kescows 2nd Edition Grammar Words Section


CONSULTATION

Until 30 November 2020


Publication of the second edition of Gerlyver Kescows is expected in 2021. It will be accompanied by on-line guidance for pronouncing every word and phrase. Below you will find a draft of the separate section of ‘Grammar Words’. This is still very much work-in-progress, and it will be updated from time to time during the consultation period.

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This text: 22 November 2020 (15:45)

 

GRAMMAR WORDS

Here you will find many words that are best learned as grammar. The list includes particles, pronouns and other ‘pronominals’, inflecting prepositions, conjunctions, and question words. Some technical language has been used in order to describe them in a small compass. Consult your textbook if in doubt, or check with your teacher. Note that initial û counts as a vowel even when pronounced ‘yoo’.


Particles and particle phrases

Some correspond to English relative pronouns, relative adverbs, subordinating conjunctions 

a2  (particle is dropped before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos)

Links subject or object of relative clause to clause verb; links subject of nominal sentence to its inflected verb; links fronted complement to inflected forms of bos (particle frequently dropped with verb remaining in 2nd state); introduces inflected verb of question beginning with question word or phrase in subject or object relationship, or question phrase formed with pana2 (particle frequently dropped with verb remaining in 2nd state)

a2

Introduces inflected verb of ‘yes/no’ question (particle is dropped before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos)

a2

Optionally used before noun of address (no mutation if proper name)

a ny2

Introduces inflected verb of interrogative negative verbal sentence

a nyns

Replaces ny2 before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos

an pëth a2           

Means ‘what’ introducing relative clause, and sometimes extended to introduce indirect question (more regularly introduced by pëth a2)

ass

Replaces assa2 before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos and also before w (< gw) of inflected forms of gwil

assa2

Introduces inflected verb to express wonder / admiration

bys may5

Means ‘until’ (when future reference, subjunctive verb required)

bys mayth

Replaces may5 before vowel / h pre-mutation

hag a2

Replaces a2 to link subject or object of relative clause to clause verb with clearer distinction from nominal sentence (a2 of particle phrase is dropped before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos)

in udn2

Precedes verb-noun to form adverbial present participle (collateral action regarded as manner in which main action is performed) – note that such a present participle cannot take an object or itself be modified adverbially

kenyver a2

Means ‘as many as’ (a2 of particle phrase is dropped before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos)

le may5

Means ‘where’ introducing relative clause of place, either without specific antecedent or to reinforce sense after specific antecedent

le mayth

Replaces le may5 before vowel / h pre-mutation

ma

Replaces may5 before na2

-ma

Means ‘this’ (demonstrative – attaches to last word of noun ‘string’)

may5 (ma when followed by na)

Introduces relative clause for antecedent that is neither subject nor object of that clause (literal meaning is ‘where’); introduces result clause (it is especially common to employ a comma before it in this usage); introduces purpose clause with subjunctive verb (frequently gallos) – in this usage it is often reinforced with preceding rag (see below)

mayth

Replaces may5 before vowel / h pre-mutation

myns a2

Means ‘all who / that’ introducing relative clause referring to people or things (a2 of particle phrase is dropped before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos)

na2

Negates imperative verb; negates inflected verb of causal, concessive, result, or temporal clause; negates inflected verb echoing verb of question, or command, or assertion, or in yes/no question tag; introduces negative indirect statement with inflected verb; replaces a2 to introduce negative relative clause and in negative questions; replaces y5 in negative questions 

See also na ve

-na

Means ‘that’ (demonstrative – attaches to last word of noun ‘string’)

na ve

Means ‘if it were not the case that’ and immediately followed by the infinitive construction

nag

Replaces na2 before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos

namna2

Means ‘almost’ before inflected verb

namnag

Replaces namna2 before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos

nans (nanj)

Used before yw and o with sense 'by now, ago' / 'by then'

neb a2

Means ‘who(m)’ / ‘which’ introducing relative clause referring to people or things (a2 of particle phrase is dropped before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos) where technically a2 alone would suffice, probably under influence of English grammar – unlike a2 it may be preceded by preposition

neb may5

Means ‘to whom / which’ referring to people or things (compare neb a2)

neb mayth

Replaces neb may5 before vowel / h pre-mutation

ny2

Negates inflected main verb of verbal sentence; in conditional sentence negates inflected verbs of protasis and apodosis

nyns (nynj)

Replaces ny2 before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos

ow4

Precedes verb-noun to form adjectival phrase, so called ‘present participle’

owth

Replaces ow4 before vowel / h

peskytter (pyscotter) may5

Means ‘as soon as [ever]’ with subjunctive verb

peskytter (pescotter) mayth

Replaces peskytter may5 before vowel / h pre-mutation

pesqweyth [oll] may5

Means ‘whenever’ with subjunctive verb

pesqweyth [oll] mayth

Replaces pesqweyth [oll] may5 before vowel / h pre-mutation

pëth a2

Means ‘which’ introducing relative clause when a whole proposition is the antecedent (a2 of particle phrase is dropped before inflected form of bos / mos)

Not to be confused with pëth a2 in a question, direct or indirect

py le pynag may5

Means ‘wherever’ with subjunctive verb

pypynag [oll] a2

Means ‘whoever’, ‘whatever’ with subjunctive verb (a2 of particle phrase is dropped before inflected form of bos / mos)

py le pynag mayth

Replaces py le pynag may5 before vowel / h pre-mutation

rag may5

Introduces purpose clause with subjunctive verb (frequently gallos)

rag mayth

Replaces rag may5 before vowel / h pre-mutation

rag na2

Introduces negative purpose clause with subjunctive verb (frequently gallos)

rag nag

Replaces rag na2 before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos

re2 (b of inflected form of bos resists mutation)

Replaces a2 to link subject or object of relative clause to its preterite clause verb yielding present perfect sense; replaces a2 to link subject of nominal sentence to its preterite verb yielding present perfect sense; replaces y5 to introduce affirmative direct or indirect statement with preterite verb yielding present perfect sense; used optatively to introduce present subjunctive of bos expressing a wish

res (rej)

Replaces re2 before preterite form of mos

seul a2

Means ‘all who / that’ introducing relative clause referring to people, not things (a2 of particle phrase is dropped before vowel of inflected form of bos / mos)

y5

Introduces inflected main verb of affirmative verbal sentence; introduces inflected verb of question beginning with prag or a question phrase formed with py; introduces affirmative indirect statement with inflected verb; precedes unpropped infixed pronoun in affirmative subordinate clause not otherwise requiring a particle

yn5

Converts adjective explicitly into adverb

yth (th’)

Replaces y5 before vowel / h pre-mutation


Personal pronouns

First person singular

avy·

Optionally replaces vy as subject after ‘endingless’ preterites deuth, dug, êth, gwrug, also when reinforcing (for greater emphasis)

’m                        

Means ‘me’ (infixed direct or indirect object after particles a2, na2, ny2, re2, y5)

ma (always unstressed)

Means ‘I’ (suffixed as subject after verb; fusion causes sound / spelling changes)

mavy· (ma vy)      

Replaces ma or vy as subject after verb for added emphasis

me                      

Optionally replaces my as subject of nominal sentence / infinitive construction or after non-inflecting preposition

my

Means ‘I’, ‘me’ (independent)

vy

Means ‘I’, ‘me’ (as subject after verb, as object after verb where grammar permits, or reinforcing)

Second person singular

dhejy· (tejy·)

Replaces jy when reinforcing for added emphasis

jy

Means ‘you’ one person familiar (as subject after verb, as object after verb where grammar permits, or reinforcing)

sy

Optionally replaces jy, especially when reinforcing inflected preposition

ta (always unstressed)

Means ‘you’ one person familiar (suffixed as subject after verb; fusion causes sound / spelling changes)

tejy· (ta jy)           

Replaces ta or jy as subject after verb for added emphasis

te (che)

Optionally replaces ty as subject of nominal sentence / infinitive construction or after non-inflecting preposition

’th5

Means ‘you’ one person familiar (infixed direct or indirect object after particles a2, na2, ny2, re2, y5)

ty       

Means ‘you’ one person familiar (independent)

Third person singular

e

Variant of ev occurring especially as grammatical object after imperative and as logical subject or object after forms of y’m beus

eev

Replaces ev when reinforcing (for added emphasis)

ev

Means ‘he’, ‘him’; ‘it’ male reference, masculine reference + tra + fact, verbal action, result of action (independent, as subject after verb, as object after verb where grammar permits, or reinforcing)

hy

Means ‘she’, ‘her’; ‘it’ female reference, feminine reference + time, weather, circumstance, condition (independent, as subject after verb, as object after verb where grammar permits, or reinforcing) 

hyhy

Replaces hy for added emphasis

’n

Means ‘him’; ‘it’ male reference, masculine reference + tra + fact, verbal action, result of action (infixed direct or indirect object after particles a2, na2, ny2, re2, y5)

’s       

Means ‘her’; ‘it’ female reference, feminine reference + time, weather, circumstance, condition (infixed direct or indirect object after particles a2, na2, ny2, re2, y5)

va (always unstressed)

Optionally replaces ev as subject after verb

By convention beuva (and mutated forms) is written as a single word, otherwise va is usually written separately

vae·v

Replaces ev or va as subject after verb for added emphasis

First person plural

’gan (may be shortened to ’n in elevated style)

Means ‘us’ (infixed direct or indirect object after particles a2, na2, ny2, re2, y5)

ny

Means ‘we’, ‘us’ (independent, as subject after verb, as object after verb where grammar permits, or reinforcing)

nyny 

Replaces ny for added emphasis

Second person plural

’gas (may be shortened to ’s in elevated style)

Means ‘you’ one person polite / more than one person (infixed direct or indirect object after particles a2, na2, ny2, re2, y5)

why

Means ‘you’ one person polite / more than one person (independent, as subject after verb, as object after verb where grammar permits, or reinforcing)

whywhy 

Replaces why for added emphasis

Third person plural

anjy·

Optionally replaces y (independent or as object after verb where grammar permits)

’s

Means ‘them’ (infixed direct or indirect object after particles a2, na2, ny2, re2, y5)

y

Means ‘they’, ‘them’ (independent, as subject after verb, as object after verb where grammar permits, or reinforcing)

ynsy·

Replaces y for added emphasis


Possessive pronouns (also used as logical object of verb-noun)

First person singular

ow3

Means ‘my (me)’

Second person singular

dha2                    

Means ‘your (you)’ one person familiar

Third person singular

y2

Means ‘his (him)’; its male reference, masculine reference + tra + fact, verbal action, result of action

hy3

Means ‘her’; ‘its’ female reference, feminine reference + time, weather, circumstance, condition

First person plural

agan (gàn)

Means ‘our (us)’

Second person plural

agas (gàs)

Means ‘your (you)’ one person polite / more than one person

Third person plural

aga3 (gà3)

Means ‘their (them)’

 

Contracted forms with a2 ‘from’/ ‘of’, dhe2 ‘to’, in ‘in’; ha ‘and / as / with’, na ‘nor’

First person singular

a’m, dhe’m, i’m; ha’m, na’m

Second person singular

a’th5, dhe’th5, i’th5; ha’th5, na’th5

Third person singular (masculine)

a’y2, dh’y2; ha’y2, na’y2

Third person singular (feminine)

a’y3, dh’y3; ha’y3, na’y3

First person plural

a’gan, dh’agan, i’gan; ha’gan, na’gan                      

Second person plural

a’gas, dh’agas, i’gas; ha’gas, na’gas

Third person plural

a’ga3, dh’aga3, i’ga3; ha’ga3, na’ga3

 

The personal and possessive pronouns are quite complex. Please bear in mind that basic forms given in the English-Cornish section are meant as a springboard only.

 

Other pronominals

an aral the other [one]

an eyl + following noun the one (as opposed to the other)

an eyl ... y ben the one ... the other specifically female / feminine reference

an eyl ... y gela the one ... the other

an hol-2 + noun the whole

an keth + following noun (ha, dell2) the same (as)

Mutation after an keth is as for definite article an (excluding c, d, k, p, q, t); the phrase an keth + noun is often combined with demonstrative particles -ma, -na

an keth hebma / hedna the same one / thing male reference, masculine reference

an keth hobma / hodna the same one / thing female reference, feminine reference

an re + following adjective / adverb / prepositional phrase / relative clause the ones

an re erel the others / other ones

an re-ma these [ones]

an re-na those [ones]

den vëth with express negative anyone, with implied negative no one

hebma (hobma feminine) this [one]

hedna (hodna feminine) that [one]

hèm replaces hebma before yw / o

hèn replaces hedna before yw / o

hòm replaces hobma before yw / o

hòn replaces hodna before yw / o

honen + possessive pronoun self; + possessive pronoun, which also precedes noun own

honen-2 pref self-

kebmys (+ following noun) so much / many

ken onen another one

kenyver + following noun every, each; any

kenyver [onen] everyone, each one; anyone

kettep huny / onen / pedn everyone

kettep tabm every bit

lies huny many [a one]

lower onen (a2 + personal pron) many

nagonen with express negative anyone, with implied negative no one

neppëth ‖ (nampë·th) something; anything (in non-negative question)

neb + noun some; any (in non-negative question)

nebes some, a little, a few See also very nebes

nebonen ‖ someone; anyone (in non-negative question)

neptra ‖ something; anything (in non-negative question)

oll all

Note that oll as adj precedes a noun / numeral (including any definite article), follows a pronoun. It is also used adverbially. 

onen one (indefinite)

pùb + following noun every, each

pùb huny [oll] every one

pùbonen ‖ everyone, each one

pùptra ‖ everything

re (a2) some Only people, things, not uncountable quantity

tra vëth with express negative anything, with implied negative nothing

vëth [oll] + preceding noun: with express negative any, with implied negative no


Inflecting prepositions

Basic meanings are given here. Prepositions are also used idiomatically, especially a2, dhe2, orth, wàr2.

 

a2 from; of (but not simple possession); about

ahanaf, ahanas, anodho, anedhy, ahanan (also = from here), ahanowgh, anodhans

Note less formal ahana vy (ahanam), ahana ny, ahano’why

 

adha·dn2 from beneath / under

adhanof, adhanos, adhadno, adhadny, adhanon, adhanowgh, adhadnans

Note less formal adhadn me, adhadn te, adhadn ev, adhadn hy, adhadn ny, adhadn why

 

ages than (note also ages dell2 + verb)

agesof, agesos, agesso, agessy, ageson, agesowgh, agessans

Note less formal ages me, ages te, ages ev, ages hy, ages ny, ages why

 

a-ugh (a-ught) above, over+

a-uhof, a-uhos, a-uho, a-ughty, a-uhon (also = above), a-uhowgh, a-ughtans

Note less formal a-ugh me, a-ugh te, a-ugh ny, a-ugh why

 

ave·ll as (sometimes also substituted for ages / ès)

avellof, avellos, avello, avelly, avellon, avellowgh, avellans

Note less formal avell me, avell te, avell ev, avell hy, avell ny, avell why

 

dhe2 to, for (destination), at (point in time)

dhybm (also dhybmo slight emphasis), dhis (dhys)

(also dhyso slight emphasis), dhodho, dhedhy, dhyn, dhywgh, dhedhans (dhodhans)

Note less formal dhe vy (dhèm), dhe jy, dhe ny, dhe why

 

dhia2 from (place); since

dhianodho, dhianedhy, dhianodhans


dhyra·g in front of; + noun, pronoun before

dhyragof, dhyragos, dhyragtho, dhyrygthy, dhyragon, dhyragowgh, dhyragthans

Note less formal dhyraga vy (dhyragam), dhyrag ev, dhyrag hy, dhyraga ny, dhyrag why, dhyrag anjy·

 

dhywar2 off

dhywarnaf, dhywarnas, dhywarnodho, dhywarnedhy, dhywarnan, dhywarnowgh, dhywarnodhans

Note less formal dhywara vy (dhywarnam), dhywara jy, dhywara ny, dhywara why, dhywar anjy·

 

dhyworth (less formally dhort) from (person, position)

dhyworthyf, dhyworthys, dhyworto, dhyworty, dhyworthyn, dhyworthowgh, dhywortans

Note less formal dhortam, dhortys, dhorto, dhorty, dhorta ny, dhorto’why, dhortans

 

dre2 (usually der before vowel, but note dre’n alongside der an) through; by (instrumentality)

dredhof, dredhos, dredho, dredhy (also = thereby), dredhon, dredhowgh, dredhans

Note less formal dredha vy (dredham), dredha jy, dredh’ev, dredha hy, dredha ny, dredha why

 

dres across, over; past; during

drestof, drestos, dresto, dresty, dreston, drestowgh, drestans

Note less formal dresta vy, dresta jy, drest’ev, dresta hy, dresta ny, dresta why

 

ès than (note also ès dell2 + verb)

esof, esos, esso, essy, eson, esowgh, essans

Note less formal ès me, ès te, ès ev, ès hy,  ès ny, ès why

 

gans (less formal gen) with (accompaniment); by (agency)

genef, genes, ganso, gensy, genen, genowgh, gansans

Note less formal gena vy (genam, ge·nama), gena jy, gena ny, gena why

 

heb without; not counting

hebof, hebos, heptho, hepthy, hebon, hebowgh, hepthans

Note less formal hebam, heb te, heb ev, heb hy, heb ny, heb why

 

in in, at (= inside); with verb of motion into; + noun predicatively after verb as 

inof, inos, ino, inhy, inon, inowgh, inans (inhans)

Note less formal ina vy (inam), ina ny, ina why

Note also Late Cornish et = in

 

in dadn2 beneath, under; precedes verb-noun to form adverbial present participle (action simultaneous with that of main verb)

in danof, in danos, in dadno, in dadny, in danon, in danowgh, in dadnans

Note less formal in dadn me, in dadn te, in dadn ev, in dadn hy, in dadn ny, in dadn why

 

inter (intra) between; among (agreement, fixed idioms)

intredhof, intredhos, intredho, intredhy, intredhon, intredhowgh, intredhans

Note less formal inter me, inter te, inter ny, inter why

 

orth (worth) [up] against; at (when not inside); according to (some measure); replaces ow4 / owth when possessive pronoun used with verb-noun

orthyf, orthys, orto, orty, orthyn, orthowgh, ortans

Note less formal orta vy, ortys, orta ny, orto’why

 

rag + noun, pronoun for; from (barrier / protection); + verb-noun in order to; + infinitive construction, na2-clause for (reason)

ragof, ragos, ragtho, rygthy, ragon, ragowgh, ragthans

Note less formal raga vy (ragam), raga jy, raga ny, raga why

 

ryb beside

rybof, rybos, ryptho, rypthy, rybon (also = nearby), rybowgh, rypthans

Note less formal rybam, ryb te, ryb ev, ryb hy, ryb ny, ryb why

 

wàr2 [up]on; on to with verb of motion

warnaf, warnas, warnodho, warnedhy, warnan, warnowgh, warnodhans

Note less formal wara vy (warnam), wara jy, wara ny, wara why

 

warbydn ‖ (elevated style erbydn ‖) against (motion, opposition); by (specific time)

wàr ow fydn, wàr dha bydn, wàr y bydn, wàr hy fydn, wàr agan pydn, wàr agas pydn, wàr aga fydn

 

warlergh behind with verb of motion; according to; + noun, pronoun, verb-noun, infinitive construction after

wàr ow lergh, wàr dha lergh, wàr y lergh, wàr hy lergh, wàr agan lergh, wàr agas lergh, wàr aga lergh


Co-ordinating conjunctions

adar

Means ‘rather than, not’ (contrastive)

boneyl ...

Means ‘either ... or’

ha

Means ‘and’

also with prepositional force:

‘as’ (equality) + noun, pronoun (independent if personal)

‘with’ (attribute) + possessive pronoun + noun

ha ... ha                   

Means ‘both ... and’

hag

Replaces ha before vowel

kefrës ... ha            

Means ‘both ... and’

mès

Means ‘but’ (sharper contrast than saw)

na                            

Means ‘nor’

na ... na

Means ‘neither ... nor’

nag

Replaces na ‘nor’ before vowel

naneyl ... na

Means ‘neither ... nor’

(bò – also py when a straight this-or-that choice)

Means ‘or’

pò ... pò

either ... or

poke·n (boke·n)

Means ‘[or] [otherwise]’

rag

Means ‘for’ (reason)

saw

Means ‘but’ (more common than mès)

ytho·                      

Means ‘[and] so’

also adverbially of consequence

‘therefore, then’

 

Subordinating conjunctions

a4                                           

Means ‘if’ (unreal / improbable / impossible – with imperfect subjunctive verb)

abà·n2                     

Means ‘now that, since’ (temporal, causal)

bys pàn2

Means ‘until’ (when future reference, subjunctive verb required)

bÿth pàn2

Means ‘whenever’ (with subjunctive verb)

dell2

Means ‘as’ (corresponding to fatell2 ‘how’); that (indirect statement)

Note that particle re2 (with usual present perfect meaning) may be used between conjunction dell2 and the verb

erna2

Means ‘until’ (when future reference, subjunctive verb required)

Note also Late Cornish tereba + infinitive construction = until with future reference 

ernag

Replaces erna2 before vowel in inflected form of bos / mos

fatell2

means ‘that’ (indirect statement)

ha

Introduces attendant circumstances phrase with noun / pronoun + adjectival or adverbial complement

[ha] kyn5

Means ‘even though’ (with imperfect subjunctive verb)

hedre2 (only with inflected forms of bos beginning with b, and with subjunctive of bewa)

Means ‘so long as, while’ (duration, not condition)

hag

Replaces ha before vowel

kepa·r dell2

Means ‘just as’ (stronger version of par dell2)

kepa·r ha pàn2        

Means ‘[just] as if’ (with imperfect subjunctive verb)

kettel2

Means ‘as soon as’ (when future reference, subjunctive verb is required)

kyn5

Means ‘[al]though’

kynth

Replaces kyn5 before vowel / h pre-mutation

mar4

Means ‘if’ (real or, with imperfect subjunctive verb,  unreal / untrue); also ‘if / whether’ (indirect question)

For if-clauses see also dos in Key Verb Tables

mara

Optionally replaces mar4

maras

Replaces mara before vowel in inflected form of bos / mos

mars

Replaces mar4 before vowel in inflected form of bos / mos

marnas

Means ‘unless’ (followed by nominal sentence structure)

pàn2

Means ‘when’; ‘while’; ‘since’ (causal)

pa·r dell2

Means ‘just as’ (stronger version of dell2)

rag dowt

Means ‘in case’ (with infinitive construction or na2-clause with subjunctive verb)  

tell2

Optionally replaces fatell ‘that’ (indirect statement)

unweyth a4

Means ‘if only’ (unreal – with imperfect subjunctive verb)

unweyth na ve

Means ‘if only ... not’ (unreal – with infinitive construction)

 

Question words / phrases

a ble5 ‘where ... from’

fatell2before verb how

fatl’ replaces fatla2 before vowel in inflected form of bos / mos

fatla2 ‘how’

pana2 (pan) + noun ‘what’

pana bellder [a2] ‘how far’; ‘how long’ (time)

pana dermyn [a2] ‘when’

pan lower torn [a2 / na2] ‘how many times’

pana re ‘what ones’

pana sort a2 ‘what kind of’

pana vaner (py par) + noun ‘what kind of’

pandr’ replaces pandra2 before vowel in inflected form of bos

pandra2 what’

pandr’orth + noun ‘what about’

pesqweyth (y5 / na2) ‘how often’

pëth ‘what’

peur5 ‘when’

ple5 ‘where’

ple ma / mowns ‘where is / are’

pleth otherwise replaces ple5 before vowel in inflected form of bos / mos

prag (y5 / na2) ‘why’

praga optionally replaces prag before na2 or when independent

py + noun ‘what, which’

py + noun pynag ‘whatever, whichever’

py lies (pan lies, pan lower, pes) + singular noun ‘how many’

py re ‘which [ones]’, ‘what ones’

py seul independent ‘how much / many’

py tyller (y5) ‘where’

pygebmys + singular noun or independent ‘how much’; + plural or collective noun or independent ‘how many (much)’

pygebmys downder (a2) ‘how deep’

pygebmys hës (a2) ‘how long’ (not time)

pygebmys les (a2) ‘how wide’

pygebmys uhelder (a2) ‘how high / loud’

pyma / pymowns ‘where is / are’ ...

pyneyl anodhans ‘which one’

pyw ‘who


Other words / phrases

a’m govys

‘for my sake’

The phrase is not attested with other possessive pronouns.

an

‘the’ (for the mutation scheme with this word, consult your textbook – and note some exceptions to the basic rules)

dhe2 (seul2) + comparative ... dhe2 (seul2) + comparative ‘the more ... the more’

govy (often introducing subordinate clause or verbal phrase)

‘oh dear!’

Personal forms: govy, gojy, goev, gohy, gony, gowhy, goy

kyn fe (focusing noun or adjectival / adverbial expression)

‘even’

maga+ adjective, adverb

‘so’

mar2 + adjective, adverb

‘so’

ot (awot)

replaces otta before vowels

otta (awotta)

‘here / there is / are’

Personal forms: otta vy (o·ttama), otta sy, otta va, otta hy, otta ny, otta why, ottensy