Publication of the second edition of Gerlyver Kescows is expected in 2021. A draft of the Checklist of Mutations appears below. If you are supportive of revived traditional Cornish and the Kernowek Standard spelling system, please let us know if you find any errors. Go to Contact Us.

This text: 7 May 2021 (17:00)


Second state (lenition)

b > v

c >

No change after s, th

ch > j

d > dh

No change before û = yoo

Occasionally no change after s: e.g. nos, tus

g > zero

gl, gr often unchanged, but , but glân > lân is regular

growedha / groweth / grugys > wrowedha / wroweth / wrugys

Monosyllables usually unchanged, e.g. gis

And many loan-words also resist this change

go > wo

goo > woo

gou > wou

gu > wu



gw > w

k > g

No change after s, th

m > v

p > b

No change after s, th

qw > g

No change after s, th

t > d No change after s, th

In loan-words go sometimes > o: e.g. arolegyth, an orseth

Second state in speech but not in writing

f > v

fl, fr unchanged

Some also argue for s > z. But the evidence for such a regular mutation is not strong. The pronunciation of s as [z] is better regarded as a matter determined primarily by phonetic environment and regional variation.

Third state (spirantization)

c > h

cl, cr unchanged 

> h kn unchanged

qw > wh

p > f

t > th

Fourth state (provection)

b > p

d > t

g > c / k

gw > qw

Fifth state (mixed)
b > f

> v after th

But note ‘re’th fo’ in wishes

d > t

g > h

gl, gr unchanged

go > who

> wo after th

goo > whoo

> woo after th

gou > whou

> wou after th

gu > whu

> wu after th

> whù

> after th

> whû

> after th

gw > wh

> w after th

m > f 

> v after th

Note the unique nasal mutation dor > an nor (in special sense ‘earth as opposed to heaven’). The development d > j after n in a few words (an jëdh, a’n jeves etc) is sometimes called nasal mutation because it is triggered by n although the result of the change is not itself a nasal.