Gerlyver Kescows 2nd Edition Numerals Section


DRAFT

Publication of the second edition of Gerlyver Kescows is expected in 2021. A draft of the Numerals section appears below. The consultation period expired on 31 December 2020. If you are supportive of revived traditional Cornish and the Kernowek Standard spelling system, please let us know if you find any errors. Go to Contact Us.

This text: 2 January 2021 (10:15)


NUMERALS

If you are in doubt about the grammar of numerals, consult Desky Kernowek or another good textbook.  


0

màn  


Cardinals (one, two etc)

When used as a noun a numeral is masculine, except feminine mil. Decimal alternatives are a modern creation. They are universally accepted for mathematics; many use them also in other contexts; they are followed by preposition a2 + pl.

1

onen (also used as pron gendered as for noun it represents)

udn + noun – udn never follows its noun, nor can it stand alone

Mutation after udn as for an

2

dew2 before masculine noun or tra ‘thing’, or referencing it pronominally

dyw2 before feminine noun or referencing it pronominally

Note an dhew2an dhyw2

3

try3 before masculine noun or tra ‘thing’, or referencing it pronominally

Note tredden ‘three men’, treddeth ‘three days’, tremis ‘three months’

teyr3 before feminine noun or referencing it pronominally

Note an theyr before or referencing feminine noun not subject to Third State mutation

4

peswar before masculine noun or tra ‘thing’ or referencing it pronominally

peder before feminine noun or referencing it pronominally

or pajer (not gender specific)

5

pymp

6

whegh

whe before consonant

7

seyth

8

eth

9

naw

10

deg pl degow

Note degyl ‘decimal’

11

udnek

12

dêwdhek

13

tredhek

14

peswardhek

15

pymthek

16

whêtek

17

seytek

18

êtek

19

nawnjek

20

ugans pl ugansow

21 

onen warn ugans

udn + noun warn ugans

or dew dheg onen

39

nawnjek warn ugans

or try deg naw

40

dêwgans

or dew ugans

or peswar deg

41

onen ha dêwgans

udn + noun ha dêwgans 

or peswar deg onen

50

hanter-cans

or deg ha dêwgans

or pymp deg

59

nawnjek ha dêwgans

or pymp deg naw

60

try ugans

or whe deg

61

onen ha try ugans

udn + noun ha try ugans

or whe deg onen

79

nawnjek ha try ugans

or seyth deg naw

80

peswar ugans

or eth deg

81

onen ha peswar ugans

udn + noun ha peswar ugans

or eth deg onen

99

nawnjek ha peswar ugans

or naw deg naw

100

cans pl cansow

115

cans ha pymthek

or cans, udn deg pymp

120

whegh ugans

or cans, dew dheg

121

onen ha whegh ugans

udn + noun ha whegh ugans

or cans, dew dheg onen

140 

seyth ugans

or cans, peswar deg

150

deg ha seyth ugans

or cans ha hanter-cans

or cans, pymp deg

160

eth ugans

or cans, whe deg

180

naw ugans

or cans, eth deg

200

dew cans

300

tryhans

or try cans

400

peswar cans

1,000

mil2 pl milyow

2,000

dyw vil2

3,000

tremil2 

or teyr mil2

4,000

peder mil2 

1,000,000

mil vil

or udn mylyon pl mylyonow

1,000,000,000

udn bylyon pl bylyonow


Ordinals (first, second etc)

1st

kensa

2nd

secùnd

or nessa in an express or implied list ‘first, second etc’

3rd

tressa

or tryja

4th

pe·swora

or pa·jera

5th

pympes

6th

wheffes

or whehes

7th

seythves

or seythes

8th

êthves

or êthes

9th

nawves

or nawes

10th

degves

11th

unegves

12th

dêwdhegves

13th

tredhegves

14th

peswardhegves

15th

pymthegves

16th

whêtegves

17th

seytegves

18th

êtegves

19th

nawnjegves

20th

ugansves

21st

kensa warn ugans

22nd

secùnd warn ugans

23rd

tressa warn ugans

24th

pe·swora warn ugans

25th

pympes warn ugans

26th

wheffes warn ugans

27th

seythves warn ugans

28th

êthves warn ugans

29th

nawves warn ugans

30th

degves warn ugans

31st

unegves warn ugans

40th

dêwgansves

50th

hanter-cansves

or degves ha dêwgans

60th

try-ugansves

80th

peswar-ugansves

100th

cansves

1,000th

milves


Phrases

an dhew both

aga dew / pùbonen a’n dhew both of them

aga thry / pùbonen a’n try the three of them


Times (once, twice etc)

Formed with element gweyth which was originally a feminine noun

Many are unattested historically

1

unweyth 'once'

with express negative ‘even’

See Grammar Words for use with mar4 / a4

2

dywweyth 'twice, two times'

3

tergweyth 'three times, thrice'

4

pedergweyth

5

pympgweyth

6

whe gweyth

7

seythgweyth

8

êthweyth

9

nawgweyth

10

degweyth

100

canqweyth

or cansqweyth ‖ 

1000 

milweyth

also means ‘a lot’ in e.g. expression of thanks

liesgweyth ‖ many times


Fractions

hanter half

radna inter dew phr halve

tressa radn third

udn radn in try one third

dyw radn in try two thirds

qwartron quarter

(qwartron m qwartronys also ‘direction; district’)

udn qwartron one quarter

try whartron three quarters


Multiples

dobyl adj double

dobla double

tryflek adj treble

tryflegy treble

peswarplek adj quadruple

encressya peder gweyth phr quadruple verb


Simple calculations

A ha B yw / a wra C

A plus B is C

or A and B make C

A marnas B yw / a wra C

A minus B is / makes C

[lies’hës ‖] B gweyth yw C

A multiplied by / times B is C

A rydnys inter B yw C

A divided by B is C


Example dates

an êthves mis Est êtek cans, eth ha dêwgans (mil eth peswar eth)

8 August 1848: birth of Henry Jenner

an seythves warn ugans mis Mê nawnjek cans, nawnjek ha dêwgans (mil naw pymp naw)

27 May 1959: passing of R. Morton Nance

an kensa mis Genver dyw vil, onen warn ugans (dew màn dew onen)

1 January 2021