APPENDIX TO KESCOWS NEBES MOY SECOND EDITION
By Ian Jackson
Work in progress
Last updated: 21 November 2023 (14:00)
Generally speaking, the lexicon of Cornish grows in two principal ways, like that of any other language belonging to the family called ‘Indo-European’. Words may be borrowed from another language by adapting their sound and spelling, and by conforming them to Cornish grammar: e.g. assigning a gender or fixing a particular ending for a verb-noun. Such borrowings are called ‘loan-words’. Alternatively, new words may be built by affixation (using prefixes and/or suffixes); and compound words may be formed by joining individual words together.
Languages differ in the degree to which they employ these two methods. On the evidence of the surviving historical texts, Cornish speakers were relatively comfortable applying the first method from the beginning of modern times, with many words borrowed from English. On the other hand, speakers wishing to supplement the historical vocabulary see the attraction of the second method to keep a balance, ensuring that Cornish retains and develops its own spirit and character.
When creating new words from existing elements, we may find ourselves translating quite literally a combination that already exists in another language. For example, pellwolok was coined on the basis of English television and its elements tele (Greek ‘far’) and vision. Such a ‘copy-cat’ formation is called a calque. Or inspiration may come from Cornwall’s own culture: e.g. mûndalas ‘royalty’ based on payments in the past to mineral lords. In the field of scientific terminology we may prefer a coinage to adhere to international norms: e.g. scientific names made with suffixes ek, yk and logieth reflecting the widely recognized Graeco-Latin templates -icus (adjectival), -ica (nominal) and -logia (nominal).
In any case new words from existing elements should be formed as consistently as possible so that they sit well in the language. It is important that we feel every word ‘belongs’.
The description here matches Gerlyver Kescows and the other parts of Kescows Nebes Moy, and is also consistent with Gerlyver Brâs. It presents the revived Cornish tongue as systematized by R. Morton Nance in his dictionaries of 1938, 1952, 1955; as further developed by J. Anthony N. Snell and William A. Morris in two supplements (1981, 1984) and in a third supplement by Morris alone (1995); as vastly extended by Nicholas Williams in his English-Cornish dictionary (1st edition 2000, 2nd edition 2006); as subsequently employed by him in his numerous translations; and now incorporated into his Gerlyver Brâs. The best teaching grammar is Desky Kernowek by Professor Williams (2012). The Cara Kernowek series of on-line coursebooks may also be followed. It will be wise to have regard to the guidance for authentic Revived Cornish vocabulary given by Professor Williams both in Desky Kernowek and in his Geryow Gwir (2nd edition 2014). For all these works, see Bibliography [still to be inserted] at the end.
This Appendix brings together information to help you understand the structure of existing words. You may then be in a position to suggest apt new words of your own. Every word coined outside the historical texts is never more than a proposal since there is not yet a really substantial community of Cornish speakers who might fully ratify new vocabulary by usage. Currently any body established with a name such as ‘language board’ or ‘academy’ only has the authority of the relatively small number of speakers who support it. And Cornwall Council is merely an organ of local government exercising functions delegated by the British parliament. It has neither a mandate to legislate for the Cornish language nor power to authorize others to do so. For the time being the revival of the language will proceed most positively if it is linear so far as possible. All work should be informed by careful scholarship based on the texts and other cogent evidence. New work should generally be consistent with the fruits of earlier labour. Good work should not be undone.
Compound words are typically produced by juxtaposing two single words, as in mûn ’mineral(s)’ + talas ’payment’ > mûndalas. ’royalty’ (see above). We call the second element of a compound word the ’head’. The first element is the ’modifier’. The order modifier + head is fundamental for word building in Cornish, deriving from the ancestor language that we call Proto-Indo European. The head supplies the most essential information. The modifier refines and focuses that information to arrive at the actual meaning of the compound. Thus a mûndalas is a kind of talas 'payment' – a payment concerning mineral(s).
The head generally undergoes lenition (that is, it changes from 1st to 2nd state) in a compound word. But lenition is not universal. When the first element ends in f gh s th, lenition of c k p q t is suppressed: e.g. kelghtro ‘orbit’, crowscas ’crusade’. If a spelling such as ’crowsgas’ is found, that is because the person coining or recording the term has applied spelling rules as inflexible morphology without regard to pronunciation, or has failed to appreciate the essential phonotactics of the language.
Clusters around the point of juncture that include either or both of dh and v may devoice as a whole: e.g. scavgarr or scafcarr. This phenomenon may also be observed in some words that were compounds in origin but are now usually treated as single words: e.g. dalathfos ‘beginning’, and gothfos ‘know’ as an alternative to godhvos.
When chy ‘house’ is the second element it may appear in its older form ‘ty’ with blocking of the usual assibilation: e.g. arhanty ‘bank’ for *arhant (modern arhans) + *ty (modern chy).
On grounds of authenticity, it is better to avoid a modern borrowing such as kyst as a stand-alone word when an older loan-word (in this case box) is found in the historical texts. But it is not uncommon for the newer borrowing to appear in a compound formation (or phrase) for some concept of the modern world: e.g. lythergyst ‘letterbox’, where the concern for historical authenticity does not apply.
Lythergyst also illustrates the general rule of compound formation: that the stress pattern of each element is essentially retained. The stress in one element will be primary, the stress in the other will become secondary. It is usually the modifier that carries the primary stress. So in lythergyst the primary stress falls on the first syllable of ‘lyther’ and the secondary stress on ‘gyst’, because ‘lyther’ describes what kind of box is meant.
There are also some compounds where stress can be more or less evenly distributed. Words for trees and colours fall into this category: e.g. sabwëdh ‘pines’ and gwydnrudh ‘pink’. Likewise the pronominal pùptra ‘everything’.
In Gerlyver Kescows and Kescows Nebes Moy compound words that have two stresses are marked with the symbol ‖.
A few compounds may optionally adopt the pattern of a single stress on the penult (the last syllable but one): e.g. coffyjy by analogy with coffyva (the latter not a compound word but one built with a suffix, so always stressed on the penult).
Hyphenation of compound words
There are no formal grammatical rules for hyphenation of compound words. It is a matter of personal style. There is a tendency to hyphenate when the first element (the modifier) not only functions adjectivally but is also itself classified as an adjective, and this tendency is stronger when the second element (the head) begins with a vowel: e.g. hager-awel ’storm’. But we encounter both drog-ober and drogober ‘crime’. There is always the possibility of hyphenating any word if it is split between two lines of writing. When this option is taken for a compound word, the split will usually be contrived at a juncture between elements in the word.
Words formed exclusively by prefixation and/or suffixation are not on the whole treated as compound words. But some formations with a prefix that also occurs as a stand-alone noun or adjective are equally capable of analysis as compound words.
A prefix may be a preposition or some other word, or it may be an unstressed monosyllabic element that has no independent existence. When a new word is formed by prefixation it may gain a semantic range or usage that is more than the sum of its parts. Each prefix has its own mutation scheme.
Words formed with monosyllabic prefixes have a single stress accent. Words formed with prefixes of more than one syllable (including many of a more or less technical nature) have secondary stress on the prefix.
A geminate or pre-occluded nasal (that is, a fortis consonant) at the end of a monosyllabic prefix is frequently preserved: e.g. pednrêwl ‘principle’. But the consonant is lenis in some disyllabic outcomes; and this is the usual approach for outcomes of more than two syllables: e.g. pendom ‘extreme’ (of opinions etc), peneglos ‘cathedral’, penvenyster ‘prime minister’, penrêwlys ‘principles’.
Hyphenation of prefixes
There are no formal grammatical rules for hyphenation of prefixes. It is a matter of personal style. There is a tendency to hyphenate prefixes of more than one syllable; but this approach is rarely applied to prefixes that make technical terms. It is fairly universal practice to hyphenate a monosyllabic prefix when it ends in a vowel and is immediately followed by a vowel: e.g. a-ugh ‘above‘. Some hyphenate when any prefix is immediately followed by a vowel: e.g. rag-istory ‘prehistory’. Some hyphenate when the prefix ends with the same letter as that which immediately follows: e.g. kes-son ‘consistent’. Many hyphenate the juncture n-g to show this is not a single sound: e.g. leun-galosek ‘almighty‘. If a word formed by prefixation is hyphenated between two lines of writing, the split may be contrived immediately after the prefix; but it should not be made within a monosyllabic prefix itself.
The productivity of prefixes may be graded. There is no universally agreed classification.
Unproductive – best not extended beyond words inherited from the historical language
Low – best restricted to methodical extension of the Cornish lexicon, often in line with Breton and/or Welsh
Medium – more generally useful but some restraint should still be exercised
High – open-ended and freely usable
List of non-technical prefixes
Here are the non-technical prefixes currently employed in revived Cornish. Note that the essential meaning of a prefix may be applied figuratively so that it is not always obvious.
The preposition a meaning ‘from, at’. Low productivity. Confined to adverbs and prepositions. Followed by Second State. The prefix is often omitted but the mutation remains: e.g. dhyworth for adhyworth. In some cases an unprefixed form may also be used: e.g. dyworth. This prefix does not appear in adhyscans ‘education’, which is a loan-word from Welsh and ultimately from Latin.
Intensifies. Unproductive (sharing its origin with prefix as, but an early formation). Followed by Third State. E.g. ahas ‘nasty’ < cas ‘hatred, dislike’.
Greek privative (negative) from Proto-Indo European syllabic n. Only in Greco-Latin loan-words. Low productivity. Followed by First State. E.g. athêmatek ‘athematic’.
Celtic privative (negative) from Proto-Indo European syllabic n. Medium productivity. Prefix dy is usually employed to make adjectives from nouns, or from Celtic adjectives (anwhek 'unpleasant' is a prominent exception), and to make an antonym pair like bocla ‘buckle’, dyvocla ‘unbuckle’. Non-Celtic adjectives and words formed with suffixation generally select prefix an: e.g. anperfeth ‘imperfect’ and ancrejadow ‘incredible’ (though dygrejadow is also found). Followed by Second State, but no mutation of c d k p q t. Becomes af before l, r. E.g. anvoth ‘reluctance’, antonek ‘atonal’, afreal ‘unreal’. See also prefix ùn.
The preposition wàr ‘upon’ in reduced form. It may have the same meaning as a prefix but is also employed merely to intensify. Low productivity. Followed by Second State, but prefix ar + prefix go > aro as in arolegy ‘inspect’. Appears as er by affection in some words: e.g. erbydn ’against’, ervira ‘decide’. And as war in e.g. warbarth ’together’. Stress falls on the second syllable of erbydn and disyllables prefixed war.
Meaning ‘chief, principal’ of offices in the Church and by extension. Borrowed from Greek. Low productivity. Followed by Second State of b m, but no other mutation. In the absence of historical examples, revivalists have prescribed Second State in all cases, but this is not supported by the essential phonotactics of the language.
Meaning ‘again’. Low productivity. Followed by Second State with usual blocking of mutation after s; but Fourth State of d as in astevery ’recompense’. as + t appears as assimilated att (blocked assibilation) in e.g. attal ’repayment’. Older unassibilated ad is retained in r-environment: e.g. adran ’department’.
The adjective bad ‘bad, evil’ borrowed from English, but found as a stand-alone word only in the phrase dâ ha bad ‘good and bad’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity, being essentially an alternative to drog that is limited to colloquial registers. No mutation.
The adjective cabm ‘askew’. As a prefix the meaning is ‘wrong’. Medium productivity. Appears as cabm in many disyllables but not universally. Followed by Second State. Spelled cam when final consonant of prefix is lenis.
The noun / numeral ‘hundred’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Medium productivity. Followed by Fourth State of gw, but no other mutation. Note that noun / numeral mil ‘thousand’ is found in compound words but not as a prefix.
Meaning ‘chief, main’. Borrowed from English chief. High productivity. No mutation.
Prefix cowl in reduced form, with the same meaning. Unproductive, occurring only in a few words where the second element begins with l. E.g. colenwel ‘fulfil’. Geminate l is simplified unless the stress accent immediately precedes.
The adjective cowal ’whole’ in reduced form. The prefix means ‘complete(ly)’. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State. See also col.
The adjective cragh ’scabby’. As a prefix the meaning is ’inferior, quack’, based on Welsh. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State of b m, but no other mutation. This prefix was introduced by revivalists who prescribed Second State in all cases (as in Welsh), but this is not supported by the essential phonotactics of the Cornish language.
Fusion of prefixes de and ar. The meaning is (reinforced) ‘upon’. Low productivity. Followed by Second State. E.g. darsewya ‘prosecute’. Appears as der by affection in dervyn ‘require’.
Fusion of prefixes de and as. The meaning is (reinforced) ‘again’. High productivity. Followed by Second State with usual blocking of mutation after s; but Fourth State of d g. Treatment of gw varies from word to word: e.g. daswel ‘review’ but dasqwary ‘replay’, Fourth State being favoured when the sense of the prefix is transparently that of repetition.
This is First State of the preposition usually found in Second State as dhe 'to' when it is a stand-alone word, but colloquially also in First State as da. The prefix is unproductive in modern Cornish, but relatively frequent in historical words. Reduced form in e.g. domhel ‘overthrow’. Occasionally spelled dy (di before a vowel), not to be confused with dy ‘without’: e.g. diantel. Likewise prefix de in dyserth ‘very steep’ where it merely intensifies. See also dar and das: these prefixes incorporate prefix de.
Latin preposition de ‘(down) from‘. Only in Latin loan-words. Low productivity. Followed by First State. E.g. descrefa ‘describe‘.
The numeral ‘ten’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity. No mutation.
The numeral ‘two’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State. It takes the form dyw when it is affixed to a feminine noun: e.g. dywros ‘bicycle'. The prefix also forms so called duals: e.g. dywvregh ‘two arms‘, but in this function it is best regarded as no longer productive.
The preposition dre meaning ‘through’. As a prefix it means ‘thoroughly’. Low productivity. Followed by Second State, and following s becomes h. Earlier drehevel ‘rise, raise’ became derevel.
The preposition dres ‘over, across’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity. No mutation.
The adjective drog ‘evil, bad’ (only employed predicatively). The meaning is the same as a prefix. High productivity. No mutation required. But there are historical instances of Second State, and some revivalists take these occurrences as a model for broader application. See also bad.
Meaning ‘without’, either literally or as privative (negative). Medium productivity. Followed by Second State; but no mutation of cl cr. Written di before vowel. When a monosyllabic word receives this prefix, vowel weakening by the Prosodic Shift is only very slight and the stress may even transfer to the second syllable of the word, though this latter phenomenon is generally regarded as sub-standard. See an for note on distribution as privative (negative). See also de (1).
Literally ‘apart’. Borrowed from Latin dis. Employed as privative (negative) in loan-words taken directly from Latin or indirectly from Latin via English. And elsewhere by analogy. Medium productivity. Occasionally this prefix operates to differentiate meaning from prefix dy, as in dygelmy ‘untie’ but dyskelmy ‘liquidate’ (a company). Used away from Latin borrowings it is followed by Second State of gw, Fourth State of b d g, but no other mutation. As with dy, the stress may transfer to the second syllable when a monosyllabic word receives this prefix; likewise generally regarded as sub-standard. Not to be confused with dys fused into borrowings directly from Greek or indirectly from Greco-Latin via English, meaning the reverse of easy or fortunate, as in dystôpyan ‘dystopian’.
The preposition in meaning ‘in(to)’. Spelling influenced by loan-words like enjoya ‘enjoy’ and entra ‘enter’; it anyway conforms to general i > e trend starting in Middle Cornish. Low productivity. Followed by Second State of br g gw, but no other mutation. The assimilation found in older empydnyon ‘brain(s)’ is not generalized to new coinages: e.g. enporth ‘import’.
Meaning ‘out of’. Borrowed from Latin ex. Low productivity. No mutation. Appears as ems in emskemunya ‘excommunicate’ and its derivatives; the spelling oms in these words also occurs.
The numeral ‘eight’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity. No mutation. When the stress accent falls on this prefix the spelling is êth.
The pronoun eyl ‘one (of two)’. As a prefix it means ‘second‘. Low productivity. Followed by Second State.
The adjective fâls ‘false’ (only employed predicatively). Borrowed from English false. The meaning is the same as a prefix. Medium productivity. No mutation.
Meaning ‘insincere’. Borrowed from Middle English; compare Modern English fickle. Medium productivity. No mutation.
Meaning ‘fake, phoney, sham’. Borrowed from Latin fucus. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State; but ch resists mutation.
Meaning ‘beneath’. Low productivity in literal sense, medium productivity in figurative sense of ‘to a lesser extent’: e.g. gobonya ‘trot, jog’. In some words of the core vocabulary such as golow ‘light’ the original sense is no longer transparent, and in a word like diogel ‘secure’ the prefix is hard to discern. Followed by Second State, but Third State of c k q.
Meaning ‘above’. Low productivity in literal sense, medium productivity in figurative sense of ‘to a greater extent’: e.g. gorudnya ‘merge’. Can tend towards the pejorative (too much): e.g. gorbeskys ‘obese’. The sense may move even farther away, as in gorbollak ‘crazy’. It is used to render the notion ‘super‘ in non-technical words like gorvarhas ‘supermarket‘. Followed by Second State; Third State state of c k q, and sometimes of p, t; occasionally Fourth State gw (or no mutation). When grammar requires the prefix itself to be put into Second State, it takes the form or rather than wor in a few nouns that are loan-words from Welsh: e.g. gorsaf > orsaf ‘station’. See also rag.
This is First State of the preposition always found in Second State as orth, worth ‘(up) against‘ when it is a stand-alone word. As a prefix it means ‘against’. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State, with usual blocking of mutation after th. In longer formations this prefix acquires secondary stress and many will signal that by employing a hyphen: e.g. gorth-cabynet ‘shadow cabinet’. When grammar requires the prefix itself to be put into Second State, it always takes the form worth.
The adjective gwadn ‘weak’. As a prefix it means ‘bad’, often in a moral sense. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State. Spelled gwan when final consonant of prefix is lenis.
The adjective hager ‘ugly, nasty’ (only employed predicatively). The meaning is the same as a prefix. High productivity. No mutation is required. But there are historical instances of Second State, and some revivalists take these occurrences as a model for broader application.
The noun hanter ‘half’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Medium productivity. No mutation. Note that noun qwarter ‘quarter’ is not found as a prefix.
Meaning ‘easily, readily’. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State.
The noun honen ‘self’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State of c k p q t, but no other mutation.
The preposition inter ‘between’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity. Followed by Second State of gw, but no other mutation : e.g. interwythresa ‘interact’. Prefix kes is often preferred in wholly Celtic words: e.g. kesgwlasek ‘international’.
The root of adjective isel ‘low’. As a prefix it means ‘below, down’. Medium productivity. No mutation. It is used to render the notion 'deputy' or 'vice' when naming officials.
Meaning ‘together’, but often simply intensifies. Medium productivity. The form kem occurs before m in old formations: e.g. kemmyn (> kebmyn by pre-occlusion) ‘common’. The resulting geminate (pre-occlusion) is simplified unless the stress accent immediately precedes: e.g. kemeneth ‘community'. In kemmer ‘take‘ the geminate originated as *kem-ber- (cf English bear). The prefix otherwise becomes ke before a consonant and is followed by Second State; but it appears as kev before l r y (consonantal) and also before a vowel; occasionally as ken before a consonant (followed by Second State of gw but no other mutation). Meaning is distinguished by contrasting kengorra ‘propel’ with keworra ‘add’. There is a tendency (not a rule) that new nouns made with this suffix in its form kev are masculine even when the prefixed element is feminine as a stand-alone word. Kevrath 'rate', kevren 'link', kevres 'series', kevreth 'system' all occur as both masculine and feminine nouns. But kevran 'share' and kevrol 'volume', for instance, are only feminine.
The preposition kyns (by-forms kyn, kèn) ‘before’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State of t, but no other mutation. Some are reluctant to capitalize this prefix, writing e.g. ken-Keltek for Kenkeltek ‘Proto-Celtic’.
The adjective ‘another'. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity. No mutation.
Meaning ‘together’, always more or less literally; contrast kem. High productivity. Followed by Second State, with usual blocking of mutation after s; but Fourth State of d, sometimes g. Note kesgwlasek ‘international’ with gw resisting mutation between s and a consonant; but keswlasek is also found. In kettesten the kett is by dissimilation. See also inter.
The adjective keth ‘same’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity. No mutation. But keth + t appears as assimilated kett in e.g. kettel ‘as soon as’.
The noun kil ‘back’. As a prefix it means ‘back, backwards‘. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State.
The noun les ‘interest, advantage’. As a prefix it has miscellaneous uses. Low productivity. Followed by Second State. Meaning ‘step’ as in lesflogh ‘stepchild’; but for some specific ‘step’ relationships there are dedicated words that do not employ the prefix. Les’hanow means ‘nickname’ or ‘pen name’. Les’hens means ‘by-pass’. There are a few words where the prefix is used to render ‘vice’ as in e.g. lesruw ‘viceroy’. It is also employed to express the notion ‘quasi’.
The adjective leun ‘full’. As a prefix it has much the same sense as cowl ‘complete(ly)’, but its productivity is lower. Followed by Second State of gw; no other mutations are historically attested, but revivalists have tended to generalize Second State, in which case historical leun-galosek ‘almighty’ must be regarded as an exception.
The quantifier lies ‘many’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Medium productivity. No mutation.
Meaning ‘very little’; compare màn 'zero'. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State.
Meaning ‘badly, wrong’. Borrowed from English; compare amyss ‘amiss’. Productivity low, and only employed before voiceless stops and s. No mutation.
The numeral ‘nine’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity. No mutation.
The adjective oll ‘all‘. As a prefix it means ‘general, universal‘. Low productivity. No mutation.
Reflexive prefix. Also used with reciprocal sense. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State. Verbal outcomes are usually intransitive: e.g. omweres ‘cope’. But the prefix in its reflexive sense may also yield a transitive verb: e.g. omwheles ‘invert’.
Meaning ‘over’. Borrowed from English. Low productivity. Followed by Second State. Meaning is distinguished by contrasting gordevys ‘overgrown’ (grown too much) with overdevys ‘overgrown’ (covered with weeds).
The noun meaning ‘head’. As a prefix it means ‘main, principal’. High productivity. Appears as pedn in many disyllables but not universally. Followed by Second State. Spelled pen when final consonant of prefix is lenis.
The numeral ‘four‘. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity. No mutation. Appears as peder if the prefixed element is a feminine noun. The formation pederdhêl ‘quadrifoliate’ is not an instance of this prefix but a compound word.
The numeral ‘five’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity. No mutation; but simplifies to pym before t.
The preposition rag employed as a prefix in the sense of prepositional dhyrag ‘before’ or adverbial in rag ‘forwards’. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State of b c gw k q and prefix gor (as or), but no other mutation. Revivalists have however inconsistently applied Second State on the basis of the more general lenition found in Welsh and Breton, and some of these coinages persist: e.g. ragdres ‘project’ and ragdhelow ‘figurehead’.
The numeral ‘seven’. Low productivity. Followed by Fourth State of gw, but no other mutation.
The noun skyll ‘shoots’. As a prefix it means ‘fairly, rather’ qualifying adjectives of colour or quality: e.g. skylwyn ‘whitish‘. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State.
Meaning ‘evil, bad’. Borrowed from Latin debilis. High productivity. Followed by Second State, but d p sometimes resist mutation. Note also tebeles, a plural noun meaning 'bad guys'; but this is the only usage as a stand-alone word.
Signifies intermittent or rapidly changeable action. Low productivity. Followed by Second State. It appears in some words as tre: e.g. tredan ‘electricity’.
Meaning ‘beyond’. Unproductive. No mutation.
The root seen in adverb adreus ‘across‘. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State with usual blocking of mutation after s, but Fourth State of d, sometimes g; and gw may resist mutation (cf kes).
The numeral ‘three’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Medium productivity. Followed by Third State. Appears as ter (simplified from teyr) if the prefixed element is a feminine noun.
The numeral ‘one’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Medium productivity. Appears as udn in many disyllables but not universally. Followed by Second State if the prefixed element is a feminine noun. And gw is always lenited: e.g. udnwysk ‘uniform’. Spelled un when final consonant of prefix is lenis.
The root of adjective uhel ‘high’. As a prefix it means ‘above, up’. Medium productivity. Followed by Second State of b m, but no other mutation. It is used to render the notion ‘super‘ in technical words like ughamowntyor ‘supercomputer’. The double prefix gorugh is used to render the notion ‘hyper‘ in non-technical words: e.g. gorughvarhas ‘hypermarket‘.
Germanic privative (negative) from Proto-Indo European syllabic n. Occurs in some loan-words from English. Low productivity. No mutation.
The numeral ‘six’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Low productivity. No mutation. By-form whegh is used before a vowel, and some employ this form more widely.
The preposition wosa ‘after’. It has the same meaning as a prefix. Medium productivity. No mutation.
There is an open-ended list of highly productive prefixes for building words needed for technical terms. None of these prefixes causes any mutation. Here are just a few of the more common ones, with their English equivalents.
bio bio, centy (centi before a vowel) centi, crypto crypto, cyber cyber, cys cis, eco (or êco; usage varies) eco, electro electro, gyga giga, hydro hydro, hyper hyper, hypo hypo, kîlo kilo, mega mega, meta meta, mono mono, mycro micro, myly (myli before a vowel) milli, nano nano, para para, sîco psycho, socyo socio, tekno techno, tera tera, trans trans
The prefixes e (being the first letter of adjective electronek ‘electronic‘) and i (being the first letter of adjective informatek ‘pertaining to information and computer technology‘) are occasionally encountered in imitation of English usage and followed by Second State: e.g. ebost (= rîvbost) ‘email‘ and iFôn ‘iPhone‘®.