Publication of the second edition of Gerlyver Kescows in printed form is expected once the new Gerlyver Brâs has been finalized. Meanwhile the full text of the Cornish-English section appears below. This may be modified from time to time in the light of comments. So if you are supportive of revived traditional Cornish and the Kernowek Standard spelling system, please let us know in the event you find any errors or think something might be improved.

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Last updated: 20 May 2024 (21:00)


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a’n par-maphr as attributive adj such, of this kind

a’n par-naphr as attributive adj such, of that kind

a’n pla phr as attributive adj terrible, dreadful, awful

a’n present termyn phr current

a’n sêson phr seasonal

a bris phr distinguished (sb); important, significant (sth)

a brow phr advantageous, useful

a dheu phr [up]coming, next

a varhas dhâ phr cheap (good value)

a verr spÿs (a verr termyn) phr shortly, soon

a verr termyn See a verr spÿs

a'y eseth phr sat, sitting

a'y sav phr stood, standing

a’y wosa phr thereafter, afterwards

a'y wroweth phr laid, lying

abarth prep + noun abarth dhe2 prep + pron on behalf of; in favour of (arguing etc)

abecedary alphabet See also in aray an abecedary

aberth in phr inside, within; into

aberveth adv in[side]

aberveth in phr inside, within; into

abhorrya loathe

abm (bay) m abmow kiss

abma [dhe2] kiss Verbal adj ibmys

aborpos adv deliberately, on purpose

aboynt adv punctually

abrans m abransow eyebrow

abyl adj (dhe2) able (to), capable, competent Comp appla

academy m academys academy

academyk m academygyon academic Also used by some as adj = academek

acceptya See degemeres

achêson See chêson

acompt See acownt 

acomptya See acowntya

acord m acordys agreement

acordya (gans, orth) agree (with)

acordyng dhe2 (herwyth + noun) prep according to

acordyon (corjel) m acordyons accordion

acownt (acompt) m acowntys account (financial)

acownt erbysyon m acowntys savings account

acownt kesres m acowntys current account

acowntya (acomptya) account; consider, regard (sb to be sth)

acowntyas m acowntysy accountant

act m actys act (incl of Parliament)

acûsya See cùhudha

acûsacyon See cùhudhans

acyd See trenken

adâl adv/prep + noun adâl dhe2 prep + pron opposite; compared with

adamant m adamantys diamond

adar prep apart from Mostly used to express ‘A, not / rather than B’ and occasionally ‘Not A but B’ 

addya add Note addys = extra

aden gales f adenyow cales hardback

aden vedhel f adenyow medhel paperback

adenewen adv aside

aderdro See adre dro

adhedro See adro

adermyn adv on time

adhelergh See dhelergh

adhelergh dhe See adrëv

adhesempys See desempys

adhevîs adv exactly Also used as adj for first class; ideal

adhewedhes adv late (in time); lately

adhyhow adv on the right

adhyhow dhe2 prep on / to the right of

adhyscans See dyscans

adhyscansek See dyscansek

adran (asran) f adradnow department; section (of organization, orchestra etc)

[Adran] Droglabmow ha Gorothobmow Accidents and Emergencies Department (A&E)

adre adv [away] from home

adre dro (aderdro) phr all around

adrëv (adhelergh dhe2) adv/prep + noun adrëv dhe2 (adhelergh dhe2) prep + pron behind position

adro (adhedro) adv around

adro dhe2 prep around; relating to, concerning, about; approximately Occasionally dhe2 is dropped

adverb m adverbow adverb

afîna decorate; refine

afînans decoration; refinement

afînus adj ornamental

afînuster m afînusterow cosmetic

afles disadvantage

afodyl (lylien Corawys) m afodylys daffodil

afrêsonus adj unreasonable

afydhya (dhe2) assure (sb)

agensow (degensow) adv recently

aglêdh adv on the left

aglêdh dhe2 prep on / to the left of

agria (gans) agree (with)

agrians agreement

agweth f agwedhow phase, stage

ahës adv along

air air

airborthm airborthow ‖ airport

airen (jyn neyja) f airednow aircraft, plane

aireth m airedhow climate

airgelghm airgelhow ‖ atmosphere (all senses)

airlum airluyow ‖ air force

airstanchadj airtight

ajan See aswon

ajy (wàr jy) adv in[side]

ajy dhe2 prep in[side], within; into

aken See merk diacrytycal

alamand m alamandys almond

alarm alarm (for security)

albùm m albùms album (music)

alcohol alcohol

alebma adv from here; ago (viewed from present)

alebma rag (hogen) phr hereafter, from now on

alena adv from there

alergek adj (orth) allergic (to)

alês adv widely; apart (stretched out)

Allâh Allah

alowa allow; admit, acknowledge Note construction alowa dhe nebonen gwil neppëth = allow sb to do sth

alowadow adj legitimate

âls f âlsyow cliff; shore

alsen f alsednow razor

alûmynyùm aluminium

alusen f alusonow charitable gift

alwhedha lock

alwhedhel f alwhedhellow keyboard

alwhedhen f alwhedhednow key (keyboard)

alwhedhor (tresoror) m alwhedhoryon treasurer

alwheth m alwhedhow key (for lock)

alwheth corkyn m alwhedhow corkscrew

alymona alimony, maintenance

amal m emlow edge

amanyn butter

amary (cùbert) m amarys cupboard

amateur m amateurs amateur

amateurek adj amateur

amateurus adj amateurish

ambos m ambosow (orth) undertaking (to); condition

ambosek adj conditional

ambosow negys pl terms and conditions

âmeninterj amen

amendya put right, mend; revise

amêthy farm Pret amêthas

amêthyans farming, agriculture

amowntyor (kevrivyador) m amowntyoryon computer

amowntyor dêwlin m amowntyoryon laptop

amseryow pl period (of woman)

amuvyansek adj sentimental

amyttya admit (all senses)

an Avar Capricorn

an Bardh Meur the Grand Bard

an bobel the public

an bobel vian the fairies

an Bobm Brâs the Big Bang

an Canker Cancer

an cans phr per cent (following a numeral)

an cùrunvîrùs[the] coronavirus

an dâ right (as opposed to wrong)

an Dasserghyans Kernowek the Cornish Revival

an Dowror Aquarius

an drog wrong (as opposed to right)

an Enebyans the Opposition (in Parliament)

an Evellas pl Gemini

an eyl torn ... ha tres aral phr now ... now

an Furv Scrifys Savonek (FSS) the Standard Written Form (SWF)

an Fydhyans Kenedhlek the National Trust

an Gov the Smith (Michael Joseph)

an Gowethas f Society

an Gùntelles Adhevîs the Premier League / Premiership

an Gwariow Olympek pl the Olympic Games

an gwella oll ganso phr his favourite

an hol adj/m the whole As adj an hol precedes its noun

an Hordh Aries

an Kenedhlow Udnys pl the United Nations

an Kesrosweyth the Internet

an Lew Leo

an Lotry [Kenedhlek] m the National Lottery

an Lybral Democratyon pl the Liberal Democrats

an mainys [kemunessa] pl the media

an Osow Cres pl the Middle Ages

an pêwas brâs the jackpot

an Pùscas pl Pisces

an Scorpyon Scorpio

an Sethor Sagittarius

an Spyrys Sans the Holy Spirit

an stairys wàr nans phr downstairs motion

an Tarow Taurus

an termyn a dheu (an termyn usy ow tos) the future

an termyn eus passys the past

an termyn usy ow tos See an termyn a dheu

an Udnyans Ewrôpek the European Union

an Vontol Libra

an Werhes Virgo

anal m & breath

analogieth m analogiethow analogy

ancertan adj uncertain

ancombra confuse (sb)

ancombrus adj confusing

ancombrynsy confusion

ancoth See ùncoth

andenythyans m contraception

andyblans adj imprecise

andydro adj indirect

anella breathe

anês adj/m uneasy; unease, uneasiness Note phrase na vëdh anês = don’t worry

aneth m anedhow abode

anêwn adj unfair; inappropriate (conduct)

anfel (gorgwergh) adj naive

anfurvus adj informal

anfusyk adj unlucky, unfortunate

anger See sorr

Anglycan adj Anglycans Anglican

angùs See in ewn angùs

anhegol adj sceptical (sb); incredible (sth)

ania (nia) annoy; worry

anians annoyance; boredom

anjùst adj unjust

anken m hardship, trouble, misery

ankevy forget Pret ancovas Alternative verbal adj nakevys

anlafyl See ùnlafyl

anowy kindle; turn on (device); arouse (sexually) Pret anowas

anserhak adj autonomous, independent

ansur adj unsure; indeterminate

antarlyk m antarlyckys comedy

anteythy adj incompetent; hopeless (sb)

anvodhek adj reluctant

anvoth See [oll] a’y anvoth

anwhek adj unpleasant

anwos cold, chill (illness)

anwyw adj unsuitable, inappropriate

anyagh adj unhealthy (sb and figuratively)

anyahus adj unhealthy (sth)

anyen instinct(s)

ap m appyow app

aparn m aprodnyow apron

apert adj obvious

apotecary m apotecarys pharmacist, chemist

appa m appys ape; mimic

appendyx appendix (anatomical)

apperya appear (come into sight)

apperyans appearance (coming into sight)

applaudya applaud

applaudyans applause

apposyans m apposyansow examination (academic)

apposyans drîvya m apposyansow driving test

appoyntyans m appoyntyansow appointment (date, time); fixture (sport)

aqwîrya acquire

aqwytyans receipt (document)

aradar See ardar

arâg adv in front See Grammar Words for prepositional use

arâg dorn See dhyrag dorn

aral adj (pl erel) other, else (definite, indefinite) See Grammar Words for pronominal use

aras plough Verbal adj erys

aray arrangement (physical); layout See also in aray an abecedary

araya arrange (all senses)

arayans m arayansow arrangement (all senses)

arbednyk adj particular (specific)

arbenygor m arbenygoryon specialist, expert

arbenygya specialize

arbrevy experiment Pret arbrovas

arbrof m arbrovow experiment

arbrojy (arbrovjy) m arbrojiow laboratory

arbrovjy See arbrojy

ardak m delay; reservation (about sth); check (in chess)

ardar (aradar) m erder plough

arenebeth See leurneth

arenep m arenebow surface

areth f arethyow lecture, talk, speech

arethek adj rhetorical

arethva f arethvaow podium, platform (for speaking, also figuratively)

arfeth m/v arfethow employ(ment); wage(s) Pret arfethas Verbal adj arfethys

arfethor m arfethoryon employer

arfethysak m arfethysogyon employee

argas aggression

argemmyn m argemydnow advert[isement] Pre-occluded bm is rare

argemydna advertise

argerth See proces

argh f arhow bin, tank (for storage / disposal of bulk: litter, rubbish, water etc)

argh-1 pref arch-

argh atal (atalgyst ‖) f arhow wheelie bin

arghpedrevanf arghpedrevanas ‖ dinosaur

argibya kidnap; hijack

argraf m argrafow impression

argùment m argùmentys argument (specific)

argya argue (develop an argument) Verbal adj usually argyes

arhadow order

arhans silver

arhansek adj financial

arhansorieth finance

arhanty (bank) m arhantiow bank

arhas m arhasow fund

arhasa fund Verbal adj arhesys

arlodhes f arlodhesow lady (peer)

arlùth m arlydhy lord

arlyw m arlywyow tint, shade; nuance

arlywa tint; nuance

armel See modrewy

army m armys army

arnowedhy modernize Pret arnowedhas

arnowyth (modern) adj modern

arolegyth m arolegydhyon inspector

arsmetryk arithmetic

art m artys art

arta adv again; back again

artykyl (erthygyl) m artyclys article (written)

arv f arvow weapon

arva carnage

arva arm Verbal adj ervys

arvor coast

arvrusy assess Pret arvrusys

arvrusyans assessment

arwedha signal

arwedhek adj symbolic; emblematic

arwedhyk f arwedhygow badge

arweth f arwedhyow sign, signal (incl radio etc); symbol; character (keyboard)

arwhythrans m arwhythransow survey

ascendya ascend, go up

asclas col asclejen chips, fries (potato)

ascor produce Used by some also as verb; or say gwil in ascor

ascoras m ascorasow product

ascorn m eskern bone

ascûs excuse

asen m & f asenas donkey

askel f eskelly wing; fin

askewera adapt

askeweror m askeweroryon adapter

asnodhow pl resources

asow col asowen (asen) ribs

asper adj harsh, severe (sth)

asperyta harshness, severity; austerity (economic)

aspia (aspias) catch sight of

aspia orth look out for; observe

aspians reconnaissance; surveillance

aspias See aspia

aspiyas m aspiysy spectator; spy

asran See adran

âss (byd) m âcys ace

assaultya assault, attack

assaultyans assault, attack

assay m assayes attempt; exercise; rehearsal; test (medical etc)

assaya (saya) try, attempt (sth); exercise; rehearse

assentya (dhe2, orth) consent (to), agree (with)

assentyans (dhe2, orth) consent (to), agreement (with)

assoylya solve; dissolve (in water etc)

assoylyans solution (all senses)

astel discontinue; suspend

astel ober phr strike noun or verb

astell f estyll board

astell dartyow f estyll dartboard

astell dîvya f estyll diving board

astell gool f estyll sailboard, windsurfer

astell mordardhf estyll surfboard

astell omborth f estyll see-saw

astellwolyago sailboarding / windsurfing

astelor m asteloryon striker

astevery (neppëth dhe nebonen) compensate (sb for sth) Pret asteveras

astranj See stranj

asvaba adopt (child) Verbal adj asvebys

aswon (ajan) know (be acquainted with); recognize, identify; acknowledge Pret aswonys or aswonas Note construction bos aswonys dhe nebonen = be known to sb See also sevel orth aswon

aswy f aswiow gap; loophole (figuratively)

atal col rubbish, waste

athlêt m athlêtys athlete

athvejy ripen, mature Pret athvejas

athves adj ripe, mature

athvetter ripeness, maturity

atom m atomow atom

atorny m atornys solicitor (loosely)

attal repayment; retaliation

attendya pay attention (to)

attent attempt, endeavour

attês adj/m comfortable (sb); comfort

attêsva (pryvedhyow) toilet(s), loo(s)

attyly repay; retaliate Pret formed with gwil

auctoryta m auctorytas authority

auctour m auctours author

augrym m augrymow algorithm

auncyent adj ancient

automatekadj automatic

aval m avallow apple

aval dor See patâta

aval gwlanek m avallow peach

aval kerensa m avallow tomato

aval paradîsm avallow grapefruit

avàn (wàr vàn) adv above position; upstairs position

avan col avanen (pl avadnow) raspberries

avarr adv early (incl before due time)

avauncya advance; progress

avauncyans advance; progress

avell ûsadow phr as usual

aventur m aventurs adventure

aventuryans venture, enterprise

avês (wàr ves) adv out[side] position

avês dhe2 prep outside position

avîsment See in dadn avîsment

avîsyans advice, information; notice, notification

avorow adv tomorrow

avortans abortion

avowa (vowa) admit, acknowledge

avoydya (voydya) avoid; depart, leave (abruptly)

avy liver

avy See envy See also Grammar Words (Personal pronouns)

awartha adv at the top

awaylak adj/m awaylogyon evangelical

awedhya influence

awedhyans (delanwes) influence

awedhyansus adj influential

awednow pl jaws

awel f awellow gale; weather

awen inspiration, muse See also rych y awen

awenek adj inspirational

awenyth m awenydhyon genius (sb)

awhêr See heb awhêr, perthy awhêr

awoles (wàr woles) adv below; at the bottom; downstairs position

awos prep + noun, indefinite pron, bos, infinitive construction because (of) (affirmative only)

awos hedna phr in spite of that, nonetheless, nevertheless; less often because of that

aysel vinegar


baby m babiow baby

backa (tobackô, megles ‖) m tobacco

backen bacon

bactêryùm m bactêrya bacterium

badhya bathe Verbal adj usually badhyes

badna m banahow drop (tiny amount of liquid); with express negative anything, with implied negative nothing

bad-ober See drogober

bagas m bagasow group; troop (actors)

bagas dyberthys m bagasow splinter group

bagas kevoos m bagasow year group

bagas lavur m bagasow working party

bagh m bahow hook; pl hinges (door, gate etc)

bagh f bahow cage (for animal); gaol (slang)

baha hook Verbal adj behys

bal m balow mine

balcon m balcons balcony; circle (in theatre)

balegy jut out Pret balegas

balgh See gothys

baloun air tobm m balouns hot air balloon

ballyer m ballyers barrel

bàn m banow height (high place) See also in bàn, wàr vàn

banâna m banânys banana

banath See bednath

band dywvron See brodngolm

baner m banerow flag, banner

bank See arhanty

bank botellow m bancow bottle bank

banket m bankettys banquet

bara bread

[bara] cras toast

barbecuw m barbecuwys barbecue

barber m barbers barber

bardh m berdh bard See also an Bardh Meur

bardhonak m bardhonogow poem

bargednya bargain, haggle

bargen m bargenys bargain, deal

bargen tir m bargenys farm

barlen f barlednow lap

barr m barrow top, summit

barr m barrys bar (incl for drinks)

barrya bar; bolt (door, gate)

barryas m barryasow barrier

barthusek adj marvellous, phenomenal

barv f barvow beard

barvus m barvusy cod

bas adj shallow; superficial (figuratively) Comp bassa

basnet m basnettys helmet

bason m basons basin

batalyas (orth) battle (against); fight (figuratively)

batel f batalyow battle

bath m bathow coin

bathador m bathadoryon slot machine

bay m bayes bay

bay See abm

bayt m baytow byte

bedh m bedhow tomb, grave

bednath (banath) f benothow blessing

bêgel m bêgelyow navel

bejeth See vysach

bejyth See besyth

benary See bys vycken [ha bys venary]

benega bless

benow adj female; feminine (grammar)

benthygya (chevysya) borrow (sth specific) Note construction benthygya neppëth dhe nebonen = lend sb sth

benyn f benenes woman

benyn ambosys f benenes fiancée

bern concern Note construction neppëth yw bern dhe2 = sth is of concern to (sb)

berr See a verr spÿs, wàr verr lavarow

berry fat

berus adj/m berusyon fluid

bës m besias finger; hand (clock)

bës troos m besias toe

best m bestas animal

Besydhak adj/m Besydhogyon Baptist

besydhya baptize, christen

besyth (bejyth) baptism, christening

betraya See traita

betys rudh col betysen beetroot(s)

bew adj alive; live (TV etc); lively

bêwa (orth) live (on) (food etc)

bewder liveliness

bewek adj lively

bewekheliven up

beweth m bewedhow lifestyle

bew’heanimate; activate (account, device etc)

bêwnans m bêwnansow life

bewscrifm bewscrîvyow ‖ biography

bian (byhan) adj small, little Comp byhadna (byhadnha)

bîbyn-bûbyn m bîbyn-bûbynas shrimp

biologyl adj biological

blam blame

blâmya blame See also dhe vlâmya

blasfemy blasphemy

bledhednek adj annual

bledhen f bledhydnyow year

blejen an gùcû f blejednow / blejyow bluebell

blejen tùlyfant f blejednow / blejyow tulip

blesys dâ phr tasty

bleus flour

blew col blewen hair(s); fur

blew an lagas col eyelash Note eyelashes = blew an lagasow

bleydh m bleydhas wolf

bleyn m bleynow tip; peak (incl of cap)

bleynorieth f priority Note that a single priority is poynt a vleynorieth

blòg m bloggys blogga

blogh adj hairless; shaved (legs etc)

blonegek adj greasy

blonek grease; lard

bloodh year (of age)

blou adj blue (contrasted with green)

blùbber (morgowl[es] ‖) m blùbbers jellyfish

bludh adj delicate Comp blutha

bobaunsus adj pompous, pretensious

bobba (edyak, idyot) m bobbys idiot

bobm m bobmyn bang See also an Bobm Brâs

bobmen f bomednow blow

bockyl m boclys buckle

bodh See herwyth bodh, [oll] a’y vodh

bodh dâ goodwill (incl commercial)

bodhar adj/m bodharyon deaf

bodharus adj deafening

bodhek adj/m bodhygyon voluntary; volunteer

body See corf

bogh f bohow cheek

bohes quant + singular noun little Note phrase bohes aga nùmber = few

bohes venowgh phr rarely, seldom

bohes y vern phr indifferent; unimportant

bohojak See bohosak

bohosak (bohojak) adj/m bohosogyon poor

bohosogneth poverty

bojet m bojettys budget

bold adj bold Comp bold'ha

bolder boldness

bolhednyk f bolhenygow capsule (for medication)

boll (trelew) adj transparent, see-through, sheer Comp bolla (bolha)

bolla m bollys bowl (deep)

bollen f bolednow bulb (electric)

bolùnjedhek adj (dhe2) willing (to); optional

bolùnjeth will; wish

bombas See coton

bond m bondys band (fastening); tyre

bond gwethyn m bondys elastic band

bond ledan broadband

bones See bos

bonk m bonkys bump (collision)

bool f bolow axe

boos food (in general)

boos tryg shellfish (collectively)

boosa feed (animal, machine, media)

boostym boostiow ‖ restaurant

bord m bordys table; board (flat surface)

borger m borgers burger

bos (bones) be Note construction y'n jeves = he has [got] and alternatives ev a’n jeves, y’n jeves ev See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

bos genys phr be born

bos heb phr lack

bos res [porrês] ‖ phr be important / essential; be urgent Note constructions res [porrês ‖] yw dhodho + verb-noun = he [really] must (obligation), res [porrês ‖] yw dhodho heb + verb-noun = he [really] must not (obligation)

bos tregys (trigys) in phr live in

bos trigys in See bos tregys in

bost m bôstow boast

bôstya boast

botas col botasen boots

botas palvek col botasen flippers (for wearing)

botel m & f botellow bottle

bothan m bothadnow hump; bulge

bothel f bothlow bubble

boton m botodnow button

bownder lane

bowyn See [kig] bowyn

bowyn ha loneth phr steak and kidney

box m boxys box (container)

boxesy box (strike) Pret boxesas

brabm m brebmyn fart

brabma fart Verbal adj brybmys

bran f bryny crow

bran rudhyk See palores

brandy brandy

branjen See briansen

brâs adj brâsyon big, large, great; pl VIPs Comp brâssa See also dre vrâs

brassys See torrak

brâster m brâsterow size

brâstirm brâstiryow ‖ continent

brasy See kesplottya

brathy bite (to hurt) Pret brathas

brav adj fine, grand (colloquially) Comp braffa

brawehy terrify; terrorize Pret brawahas or brawehas

bre (bryn) f breow hill

bregh f brehow arm

breghlydna See breha

breghlynm breghlydnow ‖ vaccine

breghtan m breghtanow sandwich

breha inoculate, vaccinate

brehel m brehellow sleeve

brehellyk See modrewy

brentyn See bryntyn

brenya give directions; run (event, organization)

brenyk col brenygen limpets

brës m bresyow mind

bresel argument (dispute); war (old-fashioned usage dating from the early Revival) See also a vresel

breselor m breseloryon militant

brest brass

brèst chest (anatomy)

Bretednek adj British

Bretmes See Brexyt

Bretonek adj Breton As masculine noun = the Breton language, optionally preceded by an

breus f breusow judgement, opinion See also dh’y vreus ev

brew adj/m brewyon injured; bruise, sore, wound (minor)

brêwy v bruise; crush; smash, shatter; mash Pret brêwys

Brexyt (Bretmes ‖) Brexit

briansen (branjen) throat, windpipe

briel (brithel) m brilly mackerel

brith adj spotted, speckled Comp britha

brithel See briel

brivya bleat

bro f broyow land, country (often with sense of intimacy)

brocha m brochys brooch

brockly See cawlvlejen gales

broder m breder brother

brodn f brodnow breast (particularly female) See also ry an vrodn dhe2

brodna See ry an vrodn dhe2

brodnek m bronegyon mammal

brodngolm ‖ (band dywvron) m brongolmow ‖ bra[ssiere]

brodnlenf bronlednow ‖ bib

brogh m brohas badger

brons bronze

bros stew

bros m brojow sting

brôsa sting

brossya See scubya


brôsya embroider Verbal adj usually brôsyes

browsyon col browsyonen fragments, pieces (broken); crumbs (bread, cake etc)

brùsh See scubylen

brùshya See scubya

brusyas m brusysy referee

bry See gwil vry a2, heb bry

bryck m bryckys brick

bryjyon boil Pret brojyas

bryketh col brykethen apricots

bryn See bre

bryntyn (brentyn) adj/m bryntynyon noble; excellent; nobleman

brÿs [benyn] womb

bûben f bûbednow wick (candle)

bùcka m bùckyas gremlin; ghost

bùcket (kelorn) m bùckettys bucket

Bùdda Buddha

Bùddieth Buddhism

Bùddyst m Bùddystyon Buddhist

budhy drown; sink Pret budhys

budhyans flooding

bufê m bufês buffet

bùlet m bùlettys bullet

bùlgh m bùlhow slot

bùluk col bùlugen earthworms

bùly col bùlien stones (round)

bùrdhen (pedn pùsorn) m bùrdhens refrain (song)

bùrlosken See losk pengasen

bùsh m bùshys bush

bùsh brâs a2 quant a whole lot of

bùss m bùssow bus

bùss bian m bùssow minibus

buwgh f buhas cow

buwhyk Duw m buwhygow ladybird

bycken See bys vycken [ha bys venary]

byd See âss

byhan See bian

bykîny m bykînys bikini The top is padn an dhywvron and the bottom is padn an lonow

byldya build

byldyans (derevyans, drehevyans) m byldyansow building

byldyor m byldyoryon builder

bylen adj/m tus vylen vicious; horrible; ruffian, thug; scoundrel

bylyard tavern pool (game)

bylyonêr m bylyonêrs billionaire

byns f bynsow vice, clamp (incl for vehicle)

byrla hug, embrace

bÿs world

bys prep + adv or numeral until

bys dhe2 prep + pron bys in prep + noun [up] to; until 

bys i'n eur-maphr up to now

bys vycken [ha bys venary] phr for ever [and ever]

bysca See bythqweth

bÿsestrenm bÿsestrednyon ‖ extra-terrestrial, alien

bysketh See bythqweth

bysky See byskyt

byskyt (bysky) m byskyttys biscuit (sweet or savoury)

bysow m besewow ring (for finger / toe)

bysy adj busy; engaged (telephone, toilet) Comp bysya

bysy yw phr + verb-noun, infinitive construction, na-clause it is important

byt m byttow bit (data)

bytegyns (so whath) adv however

bythqweth (bysketh, bysca) adv ever; with implied negative never (past reference)

byttelê adv nonetheless, nevertheless


cabel criticism (adverse)

cabester m cabestrow loop; noose; strap (shoulder)

cablek adj critical (adverse), derogatory

cablus adj guilty

cably criticize (sb, adversely) Pret cablas

cabm adj crooked; wrong (sth)

cabma twist, distort

cabmas bay (wide – e.g. Mount’s Bay)

cabm- Compounds beginning cabm- may alternatively be spelled cam-

cabmhùmbrankmislead Verbal adj cabmhùmbrynkys ‖ but no other inflection

cabmwonysm/bungling; bungle Verbal adj cabmwonedhys ‖ but no other inflection

cabûlva muddle

cabûly stir (liquid) Pret cabûlas

cabyn m cabyns cabin

cabyn lewyador m cabyns cockpit

cabynet m cabynettys cabinet

cachya catch; catch up Verbal adj cachys or kechys or kychys

cactùs m cactùssow cactus

cader herdhya f caderyow pushchair

cader rosow f caderyow wheelchair

cader vrehek f caderyow brehek armchair

caderya chair, preside (over)

caderyor m caderyoryon chairman

cadnas f canhasow delegate, representative; messenger; message

cadnas vôtya f canhasow proxy

cafas m cafasow tin, can, container (typically for food / drink)

cafas dowrhem cafasow watering can

cafos (cavos, cawas) have, get; find (incl by experience) See also dhe gafos

cafos cowas phr take a shower

cafosyans acquisition

caja (egor Duw) daisy

càl penis

càl cog dildo

cala col straw

calcorieth mathematics

cales adj hard; difficult Comp calassa or calacha Note constructions cales yw gwil neppëth, cales yw dhe wil neppëth = it is difficult to do sth

caletter m caleterow difficulty; problem

calhednyk (clytorys) calhenygow clitoris

calhen f calhednow [stick of] chalk

callek (gossenek) adj rusty

cals a2 See showr a2

caltor f caltoryow kettle

càm See wàr gàm

camdremenyas m camdremenysy trespasser

camera m cameras camera

camera kelgh clos m cameras CCTV camera

camera toth m cameras speed camera

camhensek adj wrong, immoral, unethical; wicked (sth)

camp m campys camp

campolla (compla) refer to

campolla andydro phr allude to

campùs m campùssow campus

campva f campvaow campsite

campya camp

campyor m campyoryon champion

campyory championship

camùnderstondyng misunderstanding

camva See trap

cân f canow song

cana m canys tin, can (e.g. for roasting, for petrol)

cana v/m singing; sing; play (music, musical instrument) Verbal adj kenys

canaseth m canasedhow delegation; embassy

canel f canolyow channel (incl TV)

canker m kencras crab; cancer See also an Canker

canor m canoryon singer

cans See an cans And see Numerals for use as cardinal

cansbledhenf cansbledhydnyow ‖ century The ‘logical’ spelling cansvledhen is often encountered but is inconsistent with phonetic principles

cansranf cansradnow ‖ percentage

canstel f canstellow basket

CANT abbr (= Consel Adhyscans Negys ha Teknologieth) CANTow BTEC (examining body, examination, qualification)

cantol f cantolyow candle

capel m caplys cable

cappa m cappys cap; topping (cookery)

capten m captenow captain

capytalorieth See kevalavieth

car m kerens relative; pl parents (loosely)

cara love; like Fut carvyth Verbal adj kerys Note construction ev a garsa gwil neppëth = he would like to do sth See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

cara warbarth phr (gans) make love (to) 

caradow adj likeable; kind Comp caradow’ha

caramel caramel

caravanm caravanow ‖ caravan See also park caravanow

cardygon m cardygonow cardigan

caregek adj rocky

cares (carores) f caresow lover (female); girlfriend

caretys col caretysen carrots

carg m cargow load; upload; charge (electricity)

carga load; upload; charge (electricity)

cargor m cargoryon charger

carn m carnow tor; cairn; hoof

carnak adj rocky (exposed bedrock)

carnal adj erotic, sexy As attributive adj carnal precedes or follows its noun

carnal joy sex (intercourse)

carnyval m carnyvals carnival

caror m caroryon lover (male); boyfriend

carorieth relationship (sexual)

carow Nordek m kyrwas reindeer

carr clevyon m kerry ambulance

carr slynkya m kerry sleigh; sledge, toboggan

carr [tan] m kerry car

carrek f carygy rock

carrhens dewblek m carrhensy ‖ dual carriageway

carrjy m carrjiow ‖ garage

carten f cartednow card (individual)

carten cravas f cartednow scratch card

carten cresys f cartednow credit card

carten debys f cartednow debit card

carten dynerhy f cartednow greetings card

carthpîbf carthpîbow ‖ drain[pipe]

carven f carvenow van (road); wagon, carriage (rail), pl rolling stock

carven campya f carvenow camper van

carya transport Verbal adj usually caryes

caryach m caryajys carriage (horse-drawn, train); compartment (train)

caryach baby (pràm) m caryajys pram

caryans transport[ation]

carygel f carygellow trolley (supermarket, airport, hospital, drinks etc)

cas adj/detestable; hatred; *dislike, disapprove of

casadow adj horrible, repulsive

casek coos f casygy [green] woodpecker


caslÿsf caslesyow ‖ headquarters; camp (politics)

câss m câssys case (all senses) See also in neb câss

cast m castys trick, hoax, practical joke

castan See kesten

castel m castylly castle

castya trick, hoax

cath f cathas cat

Catholyk adj/m Catholygyon Catholic

cathyk m & f cathygow kitten

cauns pavement

causya cause

cav m câvyow cave

cavach m cavajys cabbage

cavos See cafos

cavylek adj contentious, controversial

cawas See cafos

cawdarn m cawdarns boiler

cawgh shit

caw’ha shit, defecate

cawlvlejenf cawlvlejednow ‖ cauliflower

cawlvlejen gales (brockly) broccoli

cawlyk col cawlygen Brussels sprouts

cawn to See launder

cay m cayow quay; platform (for train)

centy-1 pref centi-

ceremony See solempnyta

certan adj certain

certuster certainty

cessya cease Note construction cessya heb gwil neppëth = stop doing sth

ceyber-1 pref cyber-

châcya chase

chain m chainys chain

chair m chairys chair

chair howl m chairys deck chair

chalynj m chalynjys challenge

chalynjya challenge

chambour m chambours chamber; bedroom

chapel m chapelyow chapel

chaptra m chaptrys chapter

charj m charjys responsibility (to perform specific task) See also gorra in charj dhe2

chauncya risk

chaunj m chaunjys change, modification

chaunjus adj variable

chaunjya change, modify

chauns m chauncys chance; opportunity

chawk m chawkys jackdaw

checken f checkednow cheque

checker m checkers chessboard; check (pattern)

checkva f checkvaow security (airport etc)

checkya check

chêny col china[ware]

cher mood

chersya (chêsya) pamper

chersya re phr spoil

cherya care for (sb)

chêson (achêson) m chêsons (a2, rag + noun, dhe2 + verb-noun) reason, motive (to, for)

chêsya See chersya

chevysya See benthygya

chif-1 pref main, principal

chocklet m chocklettys chocolate

chy m treven house; home Also used as adv = at home See also wàr jy

Chy an Arlydhy The House of Lords

Chy an Gemmyn The House of Commons

chy brîhy m treven brewery

chyly chilli

chymbla m chymblys chimney

chyrùrjen (leuvvedhek) m chyrùrjens surgeon

chyrùrjery surgery

cîder cider

clâfhun ‖ (côma) coma

clamder faint, blackout

clamdera faint, blackout

clamderyas m clamderysy anaesthetic

clapes m clapesow valve

clapgûth See kerdhfôn

clappya chat

class m classys class

classya classify

classyk adj/m classygyon classic

clattra clatter; chatter, babble

clâv adj clevyon ill, sick Comp clâffa

clâvjy See clojy

cledh adj left

cledh m cledhyow ditch, trench

cledha m cledhydhyow sword

cledhek adj clumsy

cledhyas m cledhysy left-handed person

clegar m clegrow crag, precipice

clejy See clevejy

cler adj clear; bright (sky) Comp clerra (clerha)

clerheclarify, explain

cles adj cosy, snug Comp clessa

clether f clethrow rail

clevejus adj infectious

clevejy (clejy) infect Pret clevejas

clevejyans m clevejyansow infection

cleves m clevejow illness, disease

cleves dyglon depression

cleves esely (rèm) rheumatism

cleves melys (cleves shùgra) diabetes

cleves strewy hayfever

cleves wheja nausea

client m cliens client

clock m clockys clock

clock dyfuna m clockys alarm clock

cloffy limp Pret cloffas

clogh m clegh bell

clojior m clojioryon nurse

clojy (clâvjy) m clojiow hospital

clôk m clôkys cloak

clôkva f clôkvaow cloakroom

cloppek adj lame

clor adj gentle, mild Comp clorra (clorha)

clos adj/m close (together); enclosed; stuffy; enclosure (place) Comp clôssa

clos f clojow lattice; rack, crate; hurdle

cloud m cloudys cloud

clout m cloutys cloth (small piece); patch

cloutya patch

clôwel f clôwellow hearing aid

clôwes hear; smell (sth); feel (sensation) Also used as attributive non-mutating adj = audio

clùb m clùbbys club

clùba v no inflection go clubbing

clun f clunyow hip

clyckya click (incl device)

clyjjy toffee

clynyk m clynygow clinic

clyp m clyppys clip (all senses)

clytorys See calednyk

cober copper

côcha m côchys coach (bus, train); economy class (air travel)

cocktêl m cocktêls cocktail

côcô cocoa

cocodryl m cocodrylys crocodile

cod m côdys code

codha fall; drop intr Note construction ev a goodh / y coodh (codhvia) dhodho + verb-noun = he should (have) See also gasa dhe godha

codha in dyfyk phr crash intr (device, market)

codha warbarth intr collapse verb

codna neck

codna bregh wrist

codnek adj clever; skill, expertise

coffy coffee

coffyva f coffyvaow café

côfyr m cofrow chest, trunk (box)

cog adj/m kegyon silly, pointless; dud

côk m cûcow fishing boat

côla cola

cola orth phr listen to (heed)

colenwel fulfil, carry out; accomplish

colhes f colhesow mattress

coljy m coljiow college

coll loss See also gasa dhe goll, mos dhe goll

collel f kellyl knife

colm m colmow bond, tie; knot, bow

colm codna m colmow tie (for neck)

colmen bleg f colmednow pleg bow tie

colodhyon col colodhyonen bowels, intestines

colodnek adj hearty, genial; brave

colom f kelemy dove, pigeon

colon f colodnow heart (incl in cards) See also ry colon dhe2

colonecter heartiness, geniality; bravery

colonen f colonednow core

colour (lyw) m colours colour

coloven f colovednow column

colpes m colpesow lever

colpon m colpons coupon

colyn m kelyn puppy

côma See clâfhun

comendya approve; recommend; introduce (sb to sth) Note construction comendya may whrella / na wrella nebonen neppëth = recommend that sb do sth

comendyans approval; recommendation

comfort (confort) comfort; consolation See also heb comfort

comfortya (confortya) comfort, console

comolek adj cloudy, overcast

comondya command Note construction comondya dhe nebonen (or infixed pron) may whrella / na wrella neppëth = command sb to do / not to do sth

comparya compare

comparyans comparison; simile

compas extent; compass

compassus adj comprehensive

compes adj straight; even; right (morally); qualified (for sth)

compla See campolla

complecter m complecterow complication (incl medical)

complek (completh) adj complex; complicated


completh See complek

complethter complexity

composa straighten; put right; verify; qualify (for sth)

composter m composterow qualification

compôsya compose (music, poetry etc)

compôsyth m compôsydhyon composer 

comprehendya include

compressa oppress; bully

comptya (cowntya) count (how many)

comûn communion (sacrament)

comyck m comycks comic (periodical)

comyssyon m comyssyons commission (body)

conar fury; mania

concêvya conceive (all senses)

conceyt concept

concrît (kestevyn) concrete

concydra See consydra

condom m condoms condom

coneryak adj/m coneryogyon furious; manic; maniac

confessya confess

confessyon m confessyons confession

confort See comfort

confortya See comfortya

confyrmya confirm

cons vagina

consel m consels council

Consel Kernow Cornwall Council

consent consent

constrîna compel Note construction constrîna nebonen dhe wil neppëth = compel sb to do sth

constrînus adj compulsory

consûmyor m consûmyoryon consumer

consyans (keskians) conscience

consydra (concydra) consider (all senses)

consystya a2 phr consist of

content m contens content

contentya satisfy (sb)

contrary adj/m contrarys (dhe2) contrary (to); opposite; opponent, adversary As attributive adj contrary precedes or follows its noun See also i’n contrary part

contraweytya ambush; intercept

contrefêtya fake, forge

controllya control

controllyans daromres air air traffic control

convedhes perceive, understand (eventive or stative) Note construction ev a wor convedhes = he understands (stative)

conversacyon morals, behaviour

convyctya convict

conyn m conynas rabbit

coodh fall

coos m cosow wood (place of trees)

copel m coplow couple; pair

copia copy

copy m copiow copy

cor wax; polish (for shoes)

cor' See coref

cor lenter polish (for furniture)

cora wax (car, furniture, legs etc)

Corawys Lent

cord m cordys chord

corden f kerdyn string

coref beer, ale Note that for some the e in this word is silent, and it shortens colloquially to cor'

coref gell pale ale

coref gorm dark ale

coref scav lager

corf (body) m corfow body

corf eskern m corfow skeleton

corf lahys m corfow constitution

corfassayans gymnastics

corflan ‖ (corlan ‖) f corfladnow churchyard; graveyard, cemetery

corfloskvaf corfloskvaow ‖ crematorium

corflywansm corflywansow ‖ tattoo

corforek adj physical

corjel See acordyon 

corkyn m corkydnow cork; stopper; float (for fishing)

corlan See corflan

corn m kern horn; antler; speaker (device)

corn denewy m kern funnel (for pouring)

cornel See cornet

cornet m cornettow corner

corr-2 pref dwarf, mini-

corrbrëvm corrbrëves ‖ microbe, bug, germ

corrdodnor (popty pyng) ‖ m corrdonoryon ‖ microwave [oven]

cors m corsow course (navigation, study)

cort f cortys court (courtyard, legal, tennis etc)

cortes adj polite

cortesy politeness, courtesy Note sense complimentary when used adjectivally

corvarvus m corvarvusy haddock

corynt du m coryns blackcurrant

cosa itch; tickle; tingle

cosel adj quiet, still


cosmer m cosmers customer

cosmos cosmos

cosolek adj calm, tranquil, peaceful

cosoleth calm, tranquility, peace and quiet

còst m costys (costow) cost See also heb còst

còst (mona) spênys m costow expense

cost See i’n côstys-ma

costen f costednow basket (large and flat – e.g. for dog); target

costrel m costrels flask

costya cost

cosva f itch; tickle; tingle

cosyn See cothman

cot adj short, brief Comp cotta

cot y berthyans phr impatient

cot y wolok phr short-sighted

côta m côtys coat

coth adj old; stale (bread etc) Comp cotha


cothhev age

cothman (cosyn) m cothmans friend

coton (bombas) cotton

cov m covyon memory See also dry dhe gov, perthy cov

covath record(s)

covep f covebow monument

covlenf covlednow ‖ dossier

covnôtyanote (for reference); minute

covnôtyansm covnôtyansow ‖ note(s) (for reference); minute(s) (record)

covrolf covrolyow ‖ register


covscrifvaf covscrifvaow ‖ archive

covva f covvaow hideout

cow adj/m cowyow hollow; cavity Comp cowa

coward m cowars coward

cowas f cowosow shower (rain, washing)

cowdollm cowdell ‖ crater; sinus

cowel m kewel basket (deep – e.g. for laundry); cage (for bird); hive (for bees)

coweth m cowetha companion; comrade, friend; pl company (companionship)

cowethas f cowethasow association, society; company, firm See also an Gowethas

cowethas cheryta f cowethasow charity (organization)

cowethasek See socyal

cowethyans m cowethyansow association (incl abstract); organization (specific)

cowl soup

cowl-2 pref complete, entire; gross (finance) With nouns / adjectives leun-(2) is more common


cowles jelly

cowlsùmm cowlsùmys ‖ total

cowlwilcomplete; fulfil; achieve


cowntnans attitude(s)

cowntya See comptya

cowrek (hûjes) adj huge, enormous

cowrvarghm cowrvergh ‖ camel

cows m cowsow speech, talk

côwsel (orth, dhe2) speak, talk (to) Pret cowsas See also heb côwsel a2

cowsor m cowsoryon speaker (person)

coynt adj curious, odd, peculiar; shrewd Comp coynta

coyntys peculiarity, quirk

cragh-Gernowekbad Cornish

crambla climb, clamber, scramble

cramblor m crambloryon climber

crampeth col crampethen pancakes

crampeth oy col crampethen omelettes

crampeth tellek col crampethen crumpets

cramvilm cramvilas ‖ reptile

cramyas crawl

cras See [bara] cras

crasa toast Verbal adj cresys

cravas m/v scratch, scrape

cravel f cravellow scraper

cravel defendya f cravellow eraser

crefhestrengthen; reinforce; intensify

crefny adj/f greed(y)

creft f creftow craft, skill

crefter strength; intensity; validity

creftor m creftoryon craftsman

creftus (serus) adj artificial

cregy hang Pret crogas

crejy See cresy

crejyans f crejyansow belief; faith, religion

crellas ruin (building)

crena (kerna, trembla) tremble, shake intr

crenwredhen f crenwredhednow ‖ bulb (plant)

crenyth m crenydhyon vibrator

cres adj/m middle, centre See also in cres

cres peace

cres y vrâster phr medium (size)

cresek adj central; average

cresen f cresednow centre (for particular activity)


crespoynthub (figuratively)

crespoyntya(wàr2) focus (on) (figuratively)

cressya See encressya

cresten f crestednow crust

cresy (crejy) (neppëth / dhe nebonen) believe Present-future crÿs Pret cresys

cresyk m cresygow crisp

cresys m crejysow credit

creunva f creunvaow reservoir; kitty

creunyon pl reserves

crev adj strong; intense; valid Comp creffa

creythen f creythednow scar

cria (pronounced 'creya', sometimes written creia) v shout, cry, call

cria in mes phr exclaim

crib f crîbow comb; ridge

crîbya comb

crig m crigow crack

cris m crisyow shirt, blouse

cris T m crisyow T-shirt

cris whës m crisyow sweatshirt

crispowsf crispowsyow ‖ waistcoat

Cristoneth Christianity

Cristyon adj/m Cristonyon Christian

criv adj raw; unripe; crude

crobm adj bent; crumpled; numb with cold (fingers, toes) Comp crobma

crobma bend; crumple; go numb with cold (fingers, toes)

crobmgenterf cromgentrow ‖ staple (fastening)


crôch m crôchys crutch Note du dewgrôch = [pair of] crutches

croder m crodrow sieve (for kitchen)

croffal (crothval) grumble, growl, mutter; complaint

croffolas (wàr2) grumble, growl, mutter (at); complain

crogen f cregyn shell (animal)

crogen pedn m cregyn skull

croglenf croglednow ‖ curtain

crohen f crehyn skin; leather

crohen an lagas f crehyn eyelid Note eyelids = crohen an lagasow

cron m cronow strap, thong

cronak m cronogas toad

cronak ervys m cronogas tortoise

cronk m cronkys blow, thump

cronkya beat, thrash

crothval See croffal

croust packed lunch; snack

croust wàr ves picnic

crow m crewow socket

crow m crowyow hut, shed

crowd (fyll) m crowdys violin

crows f crowsow cross

crowsak adj cross, irritable, grumpy

crowseryow pl crossword

cruel adj cruel

crug m crugyow mound

crùllys adj curly

cruny accumulate Pret crunys

cruskyn m cruskydnow tankard

cry m criow shout, cry, call

crycket cricket (game)

crygh adj/m cryhow wrinkled, crinkled, rumpled; wrinkle Comp cryha

cryjyk adj religious

cûb m cûbys cube

cùbert See amary

cubmyas (rag) permission (for) Note constructions cubmyas gwil neppëth, cubmyas dhe wil neppëth = permission to do sth Note phrase me a gebmer cubmyas teg = I'll be off now See also ry cubmyas rag

cubmyas lewyas driving licence

cùcû f cùcûs cuckoo

cûcùmbra m cûcùmbrys cucumber

cudh adj/m concealed; covert; hiding-place

cudha cover; conceal

cudhlenf cudhlednow ‖ cover (incl of book)

cudyn m cudydnow lock (hair); snag, problem

cùgol m cùgollow hood

cùhudha (acûsya) accuse

cùhudhans (acûsacyon) m cùhudhansow accusation

cùhudhor a'n tu aberveth m cùhudhoryon whistle-blower

cul adj narrow Comp culla (culha)

culhenarrow; restrict (sth)

cùlt m cùltys cult

culyak m culyogas cock[erel]

culyak reden m culyogas grasshopper; locust (incl figuratively)

cunor m cunoryon lighter

cùntell gather, collect; pick up

cùntellek adj collective

cùntelles congress, convention See also an Gùntelles Adhevîs

cùntellva congregation; assembly

cùntellyans collection; meeting (formal)

cunys col firewood; fuel (treated as singular when referring to petrol etc)

cûr care (community, day, social etc)

cûr See dres an cûr

cûr powes respite care

cùrry (sant melen Eyndek) m cùrrys curry

cùrun f cùrunyow crown

cùruna crown

cùrunvîrùs See an cùrunvîrùs

cùryak m cùryogas pimple

cùsca sleep

cùsk sleep; dry rot

cùssul f cùssulyow advice; suggestion; plan

cùssulya advise; suggest; discuss, plan intr Note constructions cùssulya dhe nebonen (or infixed pron) gwil neppëth, cùssulya nebonen dhe wil neppëth = advise sb to do sth, cùssulya nebonen na wrella neppëth = advise sb not to do sth

cùssulyador v cùssulyadoryon adviser

cùssulyans consultation; counselling

cùssya swear (bad language)

cùstard custard

cuv adj cuvyon dear; kind Comp cuffa

cygaryk m cygarygow cigarette

cylynder m cylyndrow cylinder

cyment cement

cynema See gwaya-mir

cynycus adj cynical

cyrcùmstans m cyrcùmstancys circumstance

cyrcùs See cyrk

cyrk (cyrcùs) m cyrcow circus

cyta f cytas city



adj good; *like Note construction yn tâ = well See also an dâ

dâ lowr phr okay

dâ y vlas phr appetizing

dadhel (dal) f dadhlow debate; pl discussions

dadhla (dala) debate

dadhelor m dadheloryon barrister

daffar materials; appliance(s), instrument(s)

daffar cales hardware (ICT)

daffar lybm cutlery

dagrow pl tears (weeping)

dainty adj dainty, nice

dal See dadhel

dala See dadhla

dalathfos beginning, origin

dalathor m dalathoryon beginner

dalgh capacity (volume)

dalhedna grasp; seize; arrest

dalhen grasp; arrest

dall adj dellyon blind

dalla v dazzle; hoodwink Verbal adj dellys

dallath m/v begin(ning), start Pret dalathas Verbal adj dalethys

dalva dispute, debate

dama f damiow mother; dame

dama dhâ (wheger) f damiow dâ mother-in-law

dama wydn f damiow gwydn grandmother

damach m damajys damage

damcanieth f damcaniethow theory Note phrase warlergh damcanieth ... in ober = in theory ... in practice

dampna See dampnya

dampnacyon damnation; condemnation

dampnya (dampna) damn; condemn

danjer See heb danjer, in danjer, perthy danjer

danon See danvon

dans m dens tooth

danvon (danon, dynwyn) send, dispatch Verbal adj danvenys Note construction danvon nebonen a wil neppëth = send sb to do sth

daralla See drolla

daras m darajow door

daras gorotham m darajow emergency exit

darbar m apparatus, kit

darbaror m darbaroryon assistant (dental, laboratory etc)

darbary prepare, provide Pret darbaras

darbary shara contribute (to sth)

dargan prediction, forecast

dargana predict, forecast Verbal adj dargenys

darlêsa (tavethly) broadcast

darn m darnow piece, chunk Also used as quant + definite noun = some of

daromdak traffic jam, congestion

daromres m/v traffic; coming(s) and going(s); come and go

darsewya prosecute

dart m dartyow dart (for game)

darvos See wharvos

dascafos retrieve

dascor v yield; give back, return

dasformya reform

daslenwel refill

dasleverel repeat (sth said) Pret dasleverys or daslavaras 

daslif feedback (incl figuratively)

dasoberor m dasoberoryon reactor

dasseny echo Pret dassonas

dasserghyans See an Dasserghyans Kernowek

dasson echo

dassteusadow adj recyclable

dassteusya (eylgelghya ‖) recycle

dastesky revise (learning) Pret dastescas

dastewynya reflect (light)

dasvêwa revive

daswel m daswelyow review

dasweles review

daswerth See wor’taswerth

daswil repeat (sth done)

dauncya dance

dauncyor m dauncyoryon dancer

dauns m dauncyow dance

davas f deves sheep

de adv yesterday

de Gwener adv/m (on) Friday Note an Gwener = the Friday

de Lun adv/m (on) Monday Note that Lun = Moon is confined to this expression and an Lun = the Monday

de Merher adv/m (on) Wednesday Note an Merher = the Wednesday

de Merth adv/m (on) Tuesday Note an Merth = the Tuesday

de Sadorn adv/m (on) Saturday Note an Sadorn = the Saturday

de Sul adv/m (on) Sunday Note that Sul = literally Sun is confined to this expression and an Sul = the Sunday Note also phrase dres an Sul = at the weekend

de Yow adv/m (on) Thursday Note that Yow = literally Jupiter is confined to this expression and an Yow = the Thursday

debry eat Pret debrys or debras

debrys ha deu phr all gone (food)

decernya discern, distinguish

declaracyon m declaracyons declaration, assertion; announcement

declarya declare, assert; announce

dëdh (> jëdh after an, in, udn) m dedhyow day See also settya dëdh

dëdh keas m dëdhyow deadline

Dëdh Tregedna m Dedhyow Tregedna Day (event where only Cornish is spoken)

dedhewadow See promys See also leun a dhedhewadow

dedhewy See promyssya

dëdhlyver m dëdhlyfryow diary

dedhyador m dedhyadoryon calendar

dedhyans m dedhyansow date

defendya erase; eliminate; dispel

defens defence

defia defy

defînya define

defînyans definition

defolya violate; rape

defowt defect, bug; default, failure

defry (yn tefry) adv indeed

degador m degadoryon vehicle

degea close, shut Verbal adj degës = closed, shut adj

degemeres (acceptya) receive, accept; adopt (policy etc)

degemeror m degemeroryon recipient

degemerva See recepcyon

degensow See agensow

degol m degolyow holiday

degrê m degrêdegree (rank, temperature)

degy See don

dehen cream

dehen cowlys clotted cream

dehen howl suntan lotion

dehen rew (rewdhehen) ice cream

dehesy hurl, fling Pret dehesas

del col dêlen pl delyow (delkyow) leaves

delanwes See awedhyans

delfyn (pyffyer) m delfynas dolphin

delînya draw; delineate

delînyans m delînyansow drawing

delît delight

delîtya delight

delk m delcow jewellery (any piece fixed with a clasp)

dell hevel (past reference dell hevelly) phr apparently

dell yw ûsys (past reference dell o ûsys) phr usually

delow f delwow icon (all senses)

delvrysm delvrysow ‖ ideal

delvrysek adj ideal

delvrysieth idealism

dêlya gans phr deal with

delycyùs adj delicious

delyfra (delyfrya, delyvra) deliver (all senses); acquit Imperative delyrf

delyfrya See delyfra

delyvra See delyfra

demedhy marry Pret demedhys or demedhas

demedhyans wedding

democratek adj democratic

democratieth democracy

demondya demand

den m tus man; person (male or when indifferent to gender) See Grammar Words for pronominal use See also dhyrag tus

den dyfudhy m tus firefighter

den jentyl m tus gentleman

den rescous m tus rescuer

dendyl earn; deserve

denethy give birth (to); generate Pret denethys

denewy pour Imperative denwa Pret denewys

den-garadj humanitarian

densak adj/m densogas jagged; serrated; hake

densel bite (to eat); chew

densyth m densydhyon dentist

denyl adj human

denythyans m denythyansow generation

departya v depart, leave

deray disorder

derevel (drehevel) raise; rise; erect, construct

derevyans See byldyans

derivadow report, statement; information; manifesto

derivas m/v derivasow (orth, dhe2) tell, state, inform; report Pret derivys or derivas Imperative derif

derivas cot m derivasow summary

descador m descadoryon teacher

descor See dyscor

descrefa describe

descryvyans (descrefans) description

desedha fit; adjust; set (device) Note desedhys = situated

desedhans m fitting (for clothes); adjustment; setting(s)

desef m desevyow assumption, presumption

deseghyer m deseghyeryow wiper (windscreen)

deseha wipe [up]; drain

desempys adj/adv sudden, abrupt, immediate; instant (coffee etc); (also adhesempys) suddenly, abruptly, immediately

desevos assume (presume)

desîn m desînys design

desînya design

desîrya desire

desk m deskys desk

desky learn Pret descas Note construction desky neppëth dhe nebonen = teach sb sth

deskys brâs phr learned

desmygy (desmygya) guess; imagine Pret desmygas

desmygy knack obma / ena phr improvize

desmygya See desmygy

desmygyans m imagination; improvization

desmygyansus adj imaginary

desmyk guess; puzzle; riddle

despîsya despise

despît insult; contempt See also in despît dhe2

despîtya insult

desta v fixed 2nd state witness; certify

destnans destiny

destria See dystrôwy

determya determine Note constructions ev yw determys dhe wil neppëth, determys yw ganso gwil neppëth = he is determined to do sth

devar See dûta

devedhek adj future

devedhyans m devedhyansow arrival; origin

devera drip; trickle

devera dagrow / goos phr shed tears / blood

devera dowr phr leak

deveryn m deverydnow drip, drop

devîs desire, plan

devnyth m devnydhyow subject-matter; ingredient; use See also gwil devnyth a2

devyn m devydnow quotation

devynes quote

dewana penetrate Verbal adj dewenys

dewas m dewosow drink Note use for soft drink ('dewas scav') with qualifying noun: e.g. dewas lymon = lemonade

dêwdhek Cort an Gùrun pl the jury (in criminal trial)

dewdhorn du handlebars

dewedha end, terminate

dewedhes adj late (in time) Comp moy dewedhes

dewetha adj last Usually precedes its noun but may follow for emphasis or in sense recent

dewfrik (frigow) du nose

dewheles come / go back, return Pret dewhelys

dêwla du hands (pair)

dêwlin du knees (pair) See also mos wàr bedn dêwlin

dewweder du binoculars

dewyn m dewydnow beam, ray

dhan[a] adv then, in that case

dhe'n dor (dhe'n leur) phr down motion

dhe’n kensa vu phr at first sight

dhe'n leur See dhe'n dor

dhe'n lyha phr at least

dhe blebmyk phr plainly, directly (speaking)

dhe dre See tre

dhe gafos phr available

dhe le phr less adv qualifying verb

dhe les phr useful; interesting An alternative phrase a les is best avoided

dhe ves phr off, away motion

dhe vlâmya phr to blame

dhe voy phr more adv qualifying verb; all the more

dhe wary phr free (used with verbs like delyfra, gasa, mos)

dhe well phr better adv qualifying verb

dhe wir phr truly, really

dh’y blegadow phr to his satisfaction

dh'y vreus [ev] phr in his opinion

dhelergh (adhelergh) adv at the back See also wàr dhelergh

dhy See dy

dhyrag (arâg) dorn phr beforehand, in advance

dhyrag tus phr publicly

dial See venjans

dialwhedha unlock

diambos adj unconditional; definitive

diamond m diamons diamond (shape, incl in cards)

diank m/escape intr Pret dienkys Verbal adj dienkys

diankva escapism

dianowy v no inflection gape; yawn Verbal adj dianowys but no other inflection

diantel adj precarious

diathves adj immature

diathvetter immaturity

diegrys adj shocked, appalled

diek adj lazy, idle

dielvednans m dielvenansow analysis

dien adj whole, intact

dierbyn[a] encounter

dieth yw phr it’s a pity / shame

diogel adj (rag) secure (against) Note phrase me a wor diogel = I know for a fact

diogelheensure, make sure

diogely (rag) secure, safeguard (against) Pret diogelas Note phrases diogely flehes = child protection (safeguarding), diogely manylyon = data protection

dîss m dîcyow die (cube)

dîvya dive

doctour m doctours doctor (usually PhD, sometimes medical only)

dohajëdh adv/m (in the) afternoon

dollar m dollars dollar

domynô m domynôs domino

don (degy) carry Pret dug Imperative dog Verbal adj degys

dones See dos

dôpyans doping (in sport)

dor m dorow earth; ground See also dhe’n dor

doraval See patâta

dorgis ‖ (dorgris ‖) m dorgîsyow ‖ earthquake

dorgris See dorgis

dorn m dornow hand (used for sth); handle (when used)

dornas See tysk

dornla m dornleow handle (generally)

dornlien See lien dorn

dorslynkm dorslyncow ‖ landslide

dorydhek adj geographic(al)

dorydhieth geography

dos (dones) come; arrive Pret deuth Imperative deus, dewgh Verbal adj devedhys See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms used in conditional sentences See also a dheu

dosbartha sort (by category); set (by ability)

doth adj prudent; tactful, discreet Comp dotha

dothter tact, discretion

dôtya act like a fool Note construction bos dôtys wàr2 = be very fond of

dour adj/adv careful(ly), scrupulous(ly)

dourwithintensive care

doust dust

dov adj tame Comp doffa

dova tame

down adj deep; profound Comp downa (downha)

downder depth

dowr m dowrow water

dowr mûn m mineral water

dowr tobm Albanek / Wordhonek whisk(e)y

dowr tobm molâss rum

dowrgledhm dowrgledhyow ‖ drain (open); canal

dowrlamm dowrlabmow ‖ waterfall

dowror See an Dowror

dowryk tobm m vodka

dowt m dowtys (a2) doubt; *fear (misgiving) See also heb dowt, perthy dowt See Grammar Words for rag dowt

dowtya doubt; fear (misgiving)

dôwys m/v choice; alternative (one of a range); choose; select; elect

dôwysel f dôwysellow menu (options)

dôwysqwartronm dôwysqwartronys ‖ constituency

dôwysyans election

draggya drag Verbal adj dreggys

draght m draghtys draught (drink); draft (document)

draghtys pl draughts (game)

dragon f dragonas dragon

drâma m drâmaow drama

dramatek adj dramatic

draylya drag (behind)

dre hap phr by chance

dre hast (also gans, in, wàr2) phr hurriedly

dre hedna phr as a result

dre lycklod phr probably

dre rêson prep + noun, infinitive construction, na-clause dre rêson a2 verb-noun, pron because (of)

dre vrâs phr generally, mostly, on the whole

dre wall phr by accident

drefen prep + noun, verb-noun, infinitive construction, na-clause because (of)

drehedhes reach, attain

drehevel See derevel

drehevyans See byldyans

dren m dreyn prickle; thorn (loosely)

dres an cûr phr over the limit (drink-driving)

dres ehen phr extremely

dres kynda phr extraordinary

dres musur phr immense

dres natur phr supernatural

dres otham See heb otham

dres pùptraphr above all

dreslebmel an lost phr jump the queue

dreys col dreysen brambles

drîvya drive (all senses)

drog predicative adj bad; harmful; *regret Prefixed as drog-1(2) when attributive adj See also an drog, heb drog

drog dens toothache

drog pedn headache

drogatty (cleves codha) epilepsy

drogdyby suspect Pret drogdybys

drogga m droggys drug

drog-gerys adj notorious

drog-goans indigestion

droglabmm droglabmow ‖ accident (with bad outcome)

Droglabmow ha Gorothobmow See [Adran] Droglabmow ha Gorothobmow

drogober (bad-ober) m drogoberow ‖ crime (individual)

drogoberor m drogoberoryon criminal

drogpësadj (a2) discontented, dissatisfied (with)

drogura smear (messily)

drokhandla v mistreat Verbal adj drokhendlys or drokhyndlys but no other inflection

drokhanow notoriety

drolla (daralla) m drollys folktale

dro-ma See tro

dron m drônow drone (unmanned aircraft)

druth adj valuable, precious Comp drutha

dry bring Pret dros Imperatives dro (doroy), drewgh Verbal adj drës

dry (neppëth) dhe gov phr (nebonen) remind (sb of sth)

du adj black Comp duha See also mis Du

dùcheth m dùchethow duchy

dur steel

Dùrdaladhe why See gromercy [dhis / dhe why]

durya (ow qwil neppëth) last; survive; persist (in doing sth)

duryans survival

dùstuny m dùstuniow fixed 2nd state evidence; reference (character, past performance etc)

dûta (devar) m dûtys duty See also wàr dûta

duw m duwow god

duwhan m sorrow, heartache

dy (dhy) adv there motion

dybarow adj unparalleled; odd (number)

dybarth (dyberth) m dybarthow parting (all senses)

dybarth See dyberth

dyber m dybrow saddle

dyberth (dybarth) part (all senses) Pret dybarthas See also bagas dyberthys

dyberth See dybarth

dyberth in forgh fork (road)

dyberthva separation; distinction; bay (hospital)

dyblans adj distinct; definite

dybos adj unimportant

dybrias adj unmarried

dybris adj insignificant

dybyta adj ruthless, relentless

dydhan adj amusing See also meur y dhydhan

dydhana amuse

dydhemedhy divorce Pret dydhemedhys or dydhemedhas

dydhemedhyans divorce

dydoll adj duty-free

dydro adj direct

dydrùssa unpack

dyfen m/v prohibition; forbid, prohibit Verbal adj dyfednys

dyfeth See dysert

dyffrans adj/m different; difference

dyffres protect

dyflas adj nasty, awful

dyflêryas m dyflêrysy deodorant

dyfroth adj no-nonsense

dyfudhor m dyfudhoryon extinguisher

dyfudhy extinguish Pret dyfudhas

dyfun adj awake

dyfuna wake [up]

dyfybrylyor m dyfybrylyoryon defibrillator

dyfygya decline; run out (sth); stall (engine)

dyfygyans decline

dyfyk shortage; deficit

dyfÿth See dysert

dygelmy untie; disconnect Pret dygolmas

dyghtya treat; service (vehicle)

dyghtyans treatment (all senses); servicing (vehicle)

dyghtyor blew m dyghtyoryon hairdresser

dyglevejek adj/m dyglevejygyon disinfectant

dyglon adj/f downhearted; depressed; depression

dyglony depress; lose heart, become depressed Pret dyglonas

dygompes adj uneven; anomalous

dygoweth adj solitary, lonely (sb)

dygowsejeth dementia

dyguf adj unfriendly, unkind

dygwetha shave (body hair)

dyharas See omdhyvlâmya

dyhaval adj (orth) unlike, different (from)

dyhepcor adj indispensable, essential

dyhow adj right (as opposed to left)

dyj abbr See dyjyn

dyjestya See gôy

dyjyn (abbreviated to dyj) m dyjydnow dot; decimal point

dylasva f dylasvaow wardrobe

dylâtya v delay, postpone

dylea delete; cancel

dylla (dyllo) emit; publish Imperative dylla (dyllo), dyllowgh Verbal adj dyllys but no other inflection

dyllans emission(s); edition

dyllas m dylajow clothes

dyllas compes-powes phr smart casual

dyllas neyja m dylajow swimsuit

dyllo See dylla

dyllor m dylloryon publisher

dymensyon m dymensyons dimension

dynamyk adj dynamic

dynar m denerow penny

dynasak adj/m dynasogyon civil; civilian

dynasydhieth citizenship

dynasyth m dynasydhyon citizen

dynerhy send regards Pret dynerhys

dynwyn See danvon

dynya attract

dynyak adj attractive

dynyta dignity

dyowl (> jowl after an) m dewolow devil See also orth an jowl

dyppa m dyppys dip (incl edible)

dyrêson adj irrational

dyrêwl adj/m unruly, chaotic; anarchy, chaos

dyrolya unroll

dyrusca peel; graze (wound)

dysableth m dysabledhow disability

dysawor adj unpleasant, nasty

dyscans (adhyscans) education, training

dyscansek (adhyscansek) adj educational

dyscarga unload; discharge

dyscas m dyscasow lesson; tuition; doctrine

dyscler adj blurred; opaque; dim

dyscor (descor) m dyscoryon pupil, student (language class etc)

dyscortes adj rude, impolite, brusque

dyscortesy rudeness

dyscos adj unprotected (incl sex); vulnerable (sb)

dyscownt m dyscowntys discount

dyscrewya unscrew

dyscudha uncover; reveal

dysebylya unplug

dysert (dyfeth, dyfÿth) m dysertys desert

dysfavera discriminate against

dysfaverans discrimination

dyskerheth gravity (physics)

dyskevera (dyskevra) disclose, expose

dyskevra See dyskevera

dysky undress (sb); take off (sth) Pret dyscas This word may be spelled dy’sky to avoid confusion with older spellings of desky

dyslel adj disloyal; dishonest

dyslelder disloyalty; dishonesty

dyslen adj unfaithful

dysmailya unwrap

dysobedyens See dysobeyans

dysobeya disobey

dysobeyans (dysobedyens) disobedience

dysonest adj indecent, improper

dyspêr despair

dysplegya unfold; unwind; develop

dysplegyans development

dysplêtya unfurl

dysqwedhes show, demonstrate, display, exhibit; appear (come into sight) Imperative dysqwa

dysqwedhyans m dysqwedhyansow show, demonstration, display, exhibition

dysqwîtha (omdhysqwîtha) relax (leisure time)

dyssent disagreement

dyssentya disagree

dystaga detach Verbal adj dystagys

dystak adj detached; independent (incl politics)

dystempra upset (sb)

dystowgh (heb let, wàr nùk) adv immediately

dystrôwy (destria) destroy Pret dystrôwys

dystrybûtya distribute

dyswil ruin (sb); spoil (sth)

dyth m dythys saying

dyvarra prune

dyvarva shave (face)

dyvarvor m dyvarvoryon shaver (for face)

dyvedhow adj sober (not drunk)

dyvers adj diverse; various

dyveth adj shameless

dyvîcyor (trogentrel ‖) m dyvîcyoryon screwdriver

dyvra (dyvroa) [e]migrate

dyvroa See dyvra

dyvroyas m dyvroysy migrant

dywel adj invisible

dyweres adj helpless (sb); hopeless (sth)

dyweth end (time, sequence) See also wàr an dyweth

dywethyn adj stiff, inflexible

dyweyth adj unemployed

dywodhaf adj unbearable, intolerable

dywostyth adj disobedient, non-compliant

dywredhya uproot; eradicate

dywreydhak adj/m dywreydhogyon bisexual

dywrosf dywrosow ‖ bicycle


dywrosyasm dywrosysy ‖ cyclist

dywrosyas jyn m dywrosysy ‖ motorcyclist

dywvogalenf dywvogalednow ‖ diphthong

dywvregh du arms (pair: cradling, embracing etc)

dywyêthekadj bilingual

dywysyans industry

dywysycter enthusiasm, zeal

dywysyk adj enthusiastic, conscientious



interj yes

eborn See ebron

ebost See rîvbost

Ebrel See mis Ebrel

ebron (eborn) sky

ebyl m ebylyon peg (incl for clothes); plug (electrical, sink etc)

ebylya v plug in

economy (erbys) economy

economyth m economydhyon economist

edhen m ÿdhyn (edhnow) bird

edrek *regret

edyak See bobba

efan adj wide (in several dimensions)

efander space (incl outer)


effect See effeth

effeth (effect) m & f effethyow effect

effethus adj effective

egerel f egerellow opener

egery open Pret egoras Verbal adj egerys = open adj

eglos f eglosyow church

egor Duw See caja

êhel f êhelyow axle; axis

ehen f ehenow kind, sort; species See also dres ehen, gwil oll y ehen

el m eleth angel

elastyk elastic

electronek adj/m electronic(s)

elgeth f elgethyow chin

elvednek adj elementary, basic

elven f elvednow element; spark; factor; pl outline (of topic)

elyn adj net

elyn m elydnow elbow; angle

elyn pedrak m elydnow right angle

emôcyon m emôcyons emotion

emôcyonus adj emotional

emôjy m emôjiow emoji

empîr empire

emprour m emprouryon emperor

empydnyon pl brain[s]

ena adv there; then

ena See enef

enawel (teweth) f enawellow storm

enbroans immigration

enbroyas m enbroysy immigrant

encladhva f encladhvaow burial; cemetery

encledhyas m/v burial; funeral; bury

encressya (cressya, moghhe ‖) v increase

enebyans See an Enebyans

enef (ena) f enevow soul

enep m enebow [sur]face (of object)

enesegy insulate Pret enesegas

enevieth psychology

engrys See serry

enjoya enjoy

enora See onora

enour See onour

enporth m enporthow import

enportha import

ensampyl See exampyl

entanus See pigus

entanya See frobma

entra (dhe2, in) enter

entrans (entryng) m entransow entrance

entryng See entrans

envies adj envious, jealous

envy (avy) envy; enmity; enemy (especially collective) See also perthy envy

enys f enesow island


eos See eosyk

eosyk (eos) f eosygow nightingale

epscop m epscobow bishop

epydemyk m epydemygyon epidemic

er prep by (the hand, the arm etc)

er y varth phr surprisingly

erba m erbys herb

erbys See economy

erbysus adj thrifty, economical

erbysy save (be sparing of) Pret erbysas

erbysyon pl savings

eredy See iredy

erel See aral

ergh snow See also gwil ergh


erghslynkm erghslyncow ‖ avalanche

erhy order (sb, sth) Pret erhys Note constructions erhy dhe nebonen (or infixed pron) gwil neppëth or a wil neppëth or erhy may whrella nebonen neppëth = order sb to do sth, erhy na wrella nebonen neppëth = order sb not to do sth

ertans (erytans) inheritance

erthygyl See artykyl

ervira decide (to); conclude Note construction bos ervirys dhe wil neppëth = be determined to do sth

ervirans m erviransow decision; conclusion

ervirus adj decisive, conclusive

eryta inherit

erytans See ertans

escar m eskerens enemy

escarus adj hostile

esedha (sedha) sit [down]

esedhva f esedhvaow lounge; siege

esedhvos m esedhvosow session; eisteddfod

esel m esely limb; member

esel seneth m esely MP (member of parliament)

eseleth membership

eseth f esedhow seat (incl in Parliament) See also a’y eseth

eskelly grehyn bat (animal)

eskyna (war2) mount (horse etc); board (vehicle)

eskyner m eskyneryow lift, elevator

eskynva f eskynvaow ramp

eskys f eskyjyow (skyjyow) shoe

eskys slynkresekf eskyjyow skate (for ice skating)

eskys sport f eskyjyow (skyjyow) trainer

esmal (owmel) enamel

especyal See specyal

esporth m esporthow export

esportha export

essens m essencys essence

Est See mis Est

establyshya establish

estêmya admire

estêmyans admiration

estrednek adj alien, strange

estren adj/m estrenyon foreign; foreigner

estyll col estyllen shelving

êsy adj easy Comp êsya or moy êsy Note constructions êsy yw gwil neppëth, êsy yw dhe wil neppëth = it is easy to do sth

etew m etewy log (for burning)

êthedna steam; vape (also vêpya in this sense)

êthen steam

ethom See otham

eur f euryow hour, time (specific, incl by the clock) See also bys i’n eur-ma, i’n eur-ma, i’n eur-na, pùb eur [oll]

euryador m euryadoryon timetable

euryor m euryorow watch; timer

euth terror

euthvilm euthvilas ‖ monster

euthwasm euthwesyon ‖ terrorist


euver adj futile

eva drink

eva yêhes phr + noun toast (sb)

evreth adj/m evredhyon disabled

ewl [boos] appetite

ewn adj right, correct See also mos i’n ewn fordh

êwna correct; mend, repair; mark (learner’s work)

êwnans correction; repair; marking (of learner’s work)

êwnder correctness; fairness

ewnhensekadj moral, ethical

ewnranf ewnradnow ‖ ration

êwnor conditioner

ewon col ewonen foam, froth

ewrô m ewrôs euro

ewyn m ewynas nail (anatomy); claw

examnacyon m examnacyons examination (incl medical)

examnya examine (incl medically)

exampyl (ensampyl) m examplys example See also rag exampyl

exampyl kyns m examplys precedent

excepcyon m excepcyons exception

experyens experience

exponencyal adj exponential As attributive adj exponencyal precedes or follows its noun

eylgelghya See dassteusya

eylya alternate

eythyn col eythynen gorse


fâcya pretend

fakel f faclow flare; inflammation

fakel mellow arthritis

falhas mow

falja (felja) split Verbal adj feljys

fâls predicative adj false Prefixed as fâls-1 (fug-2when attributive adj

fâls m fâljow split

fancy fancy; fantasy

fara m/v conduct, behaviour; behave; fare

fardel f fardellow package; pl luggage, baggage

fardellyk See packet

fashyst m fashystyon fascist

fâss (vysach, bejeth) m fâssow (fâcys) face

fassyon m fassyons fashion (all senses)

fassyonus adj fashionable

fast adj firmly fixed; stable; permanent Also used as adv fast (all senses)


fastya fasten Verbal adj fastys

fatla genes / geno'why? phr how are you?

fav col faven beans

fav pebys col baked beans

faverans specyal treat

faverus adj favourable

favour favour; appearance (how sb looks)

fedna overflow

fekyl predicative adj insincere Prefixed as fekyl-1 when attributive adj

fekyl-cher insincerity, hypocrisy

fel adj crafty, cunning

felja See falja

felshyp friendship; squad (football); team (cricket); cast (play)

femynyst m femynystyon feminist

fenester f fenestry window

fenomenon m fenomena phenomenon

fenten f fentydnyow spring (water); fountain

fentenva f fentenvaow spa

fer m feryow fair (fun, trade)

fer sparyon m feryow jumble sale

fers adj fierce Comp ferssa

fest adv very Precedes or follows its adj

fest m festyow feast; festival (secular)

feth m & f fêthyow fact

fetha defeat, beat

fevyr m fevyrs fever

fia [dhe'n fophr flee

fienasow pl fretting, anxiety

fin adj fine, delicate Comp fîna (fînha)

fin m fînyow limit (physical, abstract); pl extent

finweth limit (abstract); final(e)

finweth toth speed limit

flàm m flabmow flame

flêrya stink

flogh m flehes child See also gans flogh

flogh wydn m flehes gwydn grandchild

floghcoviorm floghcovioryon ‖ babysitter, childminder

floghva f floghvaow nursery, crèche

floren f florednow lock

floren crog f florednow padlock

floren kesnyver f florednow combination lock

flour attributive adj/m flourys finest, unequalled; flower

flourys gwëdh pl blossom

flows nonsense

flû (anwesva) influenza, flu

flûr m flûrys deck (ship)

flyckra flicker

flyrtya flirt

foesyk m foesygyon fugitive; refugee

fol adj/m felyon fool(ish) Comp folla (folha)

folednyk f folenygow leaflet

folen f folednow page

folen reckna f folednow spreadsheet

folya See holya

fong m fongow fungus

fônow pedn pl headphones

fordh f fordhow way; road See also [in] neb fordh

fordh adro f fordhow roundabout (traffic)

forgh pl fergh (ferhy) fork

form f formys form

formya form, create

forn f fornow oven; stove

fors force (incl physics) See also na fors

forsâkya abandon

forùm m fora forum

fos f fosow wall

fôtô[graf] See skeusen

fôtôgrafieth See skeusenieth


fowt m fowtys lack; mistake

fowt perthyans impatience

fracsyon See radnriv

fram m framyow frame

framya frame

franchys (franketh) freedom, liberty

frank adj free

franklondyorm franklondyoryon ‖ smuggler

frappya strike (blow)

fraws fraud

frêga tear up, shred

fresk adj fresh Comp fresca

freth adj vigorous, energetic Comp fretha

frethter vigour, energy

fria fry

frigow See dewfrik

frobma (entanya) get agitated

frobmans agitation

frobmys lowen phr excited (positive)

frodn f frodnow restraint; bridle; brake; pl reins

frodna restrain, curb; brake

front m frontys front (political, weather)

frony snort; sniff Verbal adj fronys but no other inflection

fros m frosow flow, current, stream

frôsa gush

frôsek adj fluent

frôsus adj effusive

frût m frûtys fruit

FSS See Furv Scrifys Savonek

fug- See fâls

fûgen See whiogen

fùj fudge

fùndya found

fùndyans institute, institution

fur adj wise, sensible, prudent Comp furra (furha)

furneth wisdom, prudence

furv See an Furv Scrifys Savonek

furvel f furvellow formula

furvlenf furvlednow ‖ form (to fill in)

furvlen toll f furvlednow tax return

furvus adj formal

furvwiradj virtual

furvyans format

fusen See rocket

fusyk adj lucky, fortunate

fycsyon fiction

fydhyador m fydhyadoryon trustee

fydhyans reliance; trust (legal) See also an Fydhyans Kenedhlek

fyges col fygesen figs; dried fruit (raisins, sultanas, currants)

fygùr m fygùrs figure (all senses)

fygùratyf adj figurative

fylgeth soot

fylgh raf f fylghyow strimmer

fyll See crowd

fyllel (dhe2) fail (to)

fylm m fylmys film (photography, cinema)

fylmya film

fysek See medhegieth

fysky rush, dash Pret fyscas

fysla (gans) fidget; fiddle (with)

fystena hurry

fyt m fyttys match (sport)

fytty adj appropriate, suitable


galeth f galethow galaxy

gallon m gallons gallon

gallos m/v + verb-noun power; ability; can, may, be able to See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

galosek adj powerful

galow m galowow call; invitation

galwans vocation, occupation, profession

galwansek adj vocational

galwansus adj professional

gam game (all senses)

ganow m ganowow mouth

gans / warbydn an howl phr clockwise / anti-clockwise

gans flogh See torrak

gans gorhemydnow / gor[he]mynadow a'n gwella phr best regards

gans hedna phr thereupon; moreover

garlont m garlontow garland, wreath

garm f garmow call, cry (incl of animal); slogan

garnsy m garnsys jersey

garnsy cùgol m garnsys hoodie

garow adj rough, harsh; violent Comp garwa or moy garow

garowder roughness, harshness; violence

garr f garrow leg

garren f garednow stem, stalk

garth gwary m & f gardhow (gerdhyer) playground Mixed gender and unexpected spelling of singular are both due to English influence

gasa leave; let; let go (of) Note construction gasa nebonen dhe wil neppëth = let sb do sth Imperative gesowgh Verbal adj gesys

gasa dhe godha phr drop tr

gasa dhe goll phr neglect

gasa mes phr leave out, omit

gass gas See also heb gass

gava (neppëth dhe nebonen) forgive (sb for sth) Verbal adj gevys or gyvys

gavar f gever (gyfras) goat See also an Avar

gawlek adj (wàr2) astride, straddling

gay adj gay (all senses)

gedlînen See lînen gedya

gedlyverm gedlyfryow ‖ guidebook

gedya guide

gedyor m gedyoryon guide

geler f gelerow coffin

gell adj brown (light)

gelwel call; invite

genesygeth birth

genesyk adj genesygyon native; innate, inherent

Genver See mis Genver

genydnek adj genetic

genyn m genydnow gene; pl DNA (coding)

genys See bos genys

ger m geryow word; comment See also gorra in geryow


gerlyverm gerlyfryow ‖ dictionary

gerva f gervaow vocabulary; glossary

gerys dâ See meur y hanow

ges joke, joking See also gwil ges a2

geseth irony

gesus adj facetious, satirical

gesya make fun of (sb), mock (humourously); joke

gesyor m gesyoryon comedian

gevell m gevellas twin See also an Evellas

gis m gîsyow manner, style

gis screfa m gîsyow style (writing)

gladn f gladnow bank (river, lake etc)

gladn an mor seaside

gladn gales hard shoulder (motorway)

glân adj/adv clean; with adj completely Comp glâna (glânha) As adv glân follows its adj

glanheclean; launder (incl money); wipe (to clean)

glanyth adj clean-and-neat; hygienic

glanythter hygiene

glas adj blue, green, grey (focus on brightness)

glasrudh ‖ (pùrpur) adj purple, violet

glaw rain See also gwil glaw

glawjy m glawjiow ‖ shelter (from rain: bus etc)

glawlenf glawlednow ‖ umbrella (for rain)

glëb adj wet, moist, damp Comp gleppa

glebor moisture, damp

glebya wet, moisten, dampen

glehy soak Pret glehas

glena (orth, dhe2) cling, stick (to)

glesyn m glesydnow lawn; green (bowling, golf)

glew adj bright; acute, intense Comp glewa

glin m glinyow knee

gloos See pain

glory glory

gloryùs adj glorious

glow coal

glow predn charcoal

glus m glue; paste; purée

glus dens See toos dens

glus gwethyn latex

glus knias chewing gum

glusa glue, paste

glûten gluten

glûth dew; condensation


glyttra glitter

gnas gnâsyow nature, quality, character

gober m gobrow wage(s), salary; fee

gobonya trot, jog

gobren See settya wor’gobren

gobrena (rentya) hire, rent

gobrys dâ phr well paid

gocky adj/m gockies silly, stupid, absurd Comp gockia

gockyneth silliness, stupidity, absurdity

goderry interrupt (sth) Pret godorras

godh (go’dhor ‖) m godhas mole (animal)

godhaf See godhevel

Godhalek Gaelic (languages: Irish, Scottish, Manx, optionally preceded by an)

godhevel (godhaf) tolerate

godhevyans tolerance

go’dhor See godh

godhvos m/v + verb-noun know(ledge); know how to See also whensys dhe wodhvos See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

godn m godnys gun

godolhyn lent'hem godolhydnow ‖ speed bump

godra milk

godrabm cramp

godrega (in) stay (in a place for business or pleasure)

godros m/v threat(en)


godroth bùrm yeast extract

gogell f gogellow cell (biology)

goheles avoid

gohelus adj evasive

gol m gôlyow goal (football etc)

goledna claim (sth as entitlement)

golegy edit Verbal adj golegys but no other inflection

goles bottom, base (of sth); sole (shoe) See also wàr woles

golesen Gernowek f golesednow Kernowek Cornish kilt

golf golf

golghva f golghvaow bathroom

golghva kerry f golghvaow car wash

golhy wash Pret golhas

golia wound

gologva f gologvaow outlook; perspective; scene (play, film)

golok sight (seeing, sth seen); look (act of looking)

golok scav glance

golok vian glimpse

golow adj/m golowys bright; light, glow

golow trafyk m golowys traffic light

golowboyntm golowboyntys ‖ highlight

golowbrenm golowbrednyer ‖ lamp post

golowjy golowjiow ‖ lighthouse

golowy light; glow Pret golowas

golowyn X m golowydnow X-ray

golsowes (goslowes) [orth, dhe2] listen (to)

golsowyas (goslowyas) m golsowysy listener

golvan m golvanas sparrow

goly m goliow wound

golya sail

gôlya celebrate (birthday, anniversary etc)

golyth m golythyon roast meat

golyth Tùrkek m golythyon kebab

gon m gonow gown, robe

gonys m/v cultivation; working (at sth); cultivate Inflected stem gonedh-

gonys has phr sow seed

gonysegeth culture

goodh f godhow goose

gool m golyow festival

gool m & f golyow sail

gool ilow m golyow music festival

goos blood

gooth pride (positive); pride (negative), arrogance

gooth mûn f gwythy lode 

gora (gorha) hay

gorbeskys (gordew) adj obese

gordennva f gordenvaow overdraft Pre-occluded dn is rare

gordew See gorbeskys

gordhuwher adv/m (in the) evening

gordhya worship

gordhylla (gordhyllo) fire, sack (from job)

gordhyllo See gordhylla

gordhyor m gordhyoryon worshipper

gorfenna finish Pre-occluded dn is rare

gorgevren f gorgevrednyon hyperlink

gorgwergh See anfel

gorhal m gorholyon ship

gorhanus adj enchanting

gorhemmyn m/v gorhemydnow bid(ding), command Pret gorhemydnys Verbal adj gorhemydnys Pre-occluded bm is rare Note construction gorhemmyn dhe nebonen gwil nampëth = bid sb do sth See also gans gorhemydnow a'n gwella

gorhemmyn medhek prescription

gorhemynadow See gans gorhemynadow a'n gwella

gorher m gorheryow cover, lid

gorheras cladding

gorhery cover (with sth for the purpose: lid, upholstery etc) Pret gorheras

gorholeth demand

gorholus adj demanding, challenging

gorlanwes luxury

gorlanwesek adj luxurious

gorlywa exaggerate

gorm adj brown (dark)

gormel See praisya

gormola (prais) m gormolys praisegwy

gormynadow See gans gormynadow a'n gwella

gorotham m gorothobmow emergency

gorour m gorwer hero

gorow adj male; masculine (grammar)

gorra put, place, lay; take, send Note construction gorra A in le B = replace A with B, substitute B for A

gorra dhe dhyscans phr educate

gorra dhe wil phr apply (process etc)

gorra in arhow phr place on deposit

gorra in (avell) charj dhe2 phr entrust to

gorra in geryow phr express (in words)

gorra meth in phr embarrass

gorra moy dhe2 phr supplement

gorra own in phr frighten, scare

gorra scruth in phr horrify, shock

gorra tan in phr set fire to / alight

gorras m gorrasow lift (in vehicle)

gorsaf m gorsavow station (bus, railway) Note 2nd state orsaf, orsavow

gorth-1(2) pref anti-, counter-

gortheby [dhe2] answer, reply, respond; correspond (sth to sth) Pret gorthebys

gortheneby confront; oppose Pret gorthenebas

Gortheren See mis Gortheren

gorthsavresistance (to proposal, policy etc)

gorthviotykadj/m gorthviotygyon ‖ antibiotic

gorth-Yedhôwiethf antisemitism

gorthyp m gorthebow answer, reply, response

gortos wait (for) Imperative gorta

gorvarhas f gorvarhasow supermarket

gorwedha See growedha

gorwel horizon

goskes m goskesow shelter (all senses)

goskesy shelter Pret goskesys

goslowes See golsowes

goslowyas See golsowyas

gossenek See callek

gostyth adj (dhe2) obedient (to), compliant (with)

gostythter obedience, compliance

gothys (balgh) adj proud (negative), arrogant

gour m gwer husband

gour ambosys m gwer fiancé

gov See an Gov

govenek *hope See also tùlla

gover m goverow brook, stream

governa govern, run (Cornwall, town etc)

governans m governansow government

govyn m/v enquiry; request, ask (for); charge (amount) Pret govydnas or govydnys Note constructions govyn orth nebonen mar = ask sb if / whether, govyn neppëth orth nebonen = ask sb for sth, govyn orth nebonen gwil neppëth = ask sb to do sth

govynador m govynadoryon questionnaire

govynadow enquiry; request, application

govynva enquiry desk, information point

gow adj/m gowyow false (lying); lie(s), falsehood See also heb wow

gow gwir paradox

gowdhan m gowdhanas moth

gowek adj/m gowygyon lying; liar

gowleverel[tell a] lie Verbal adj gowleverys ‖ but no other inflection

gôy (dyjestya) digest Verbal adj gôys but no other inflection

gradh m gradhow grade; degree (incl university)

gradhva scale

graf m grafow graph (all senses)

grahel f grahellow heap, pile

grahella heap, pile

gràm m gramow gram

gramer grammar

gramercy [dhis / dhe why] See gromercy [dhis / dhe why]

grappa m grappys grape

grâss m grassow (a2, rag) grace; pl outside fixed phrases thanks (for) Note constructions aswon (godhvos) grâss dhe2 (a2) = thank (for), grâss dhe2 = thanks to

grassyùs adj gracious

grastalm grastalyow ‖ gratuity, tip

grava clevyon m gravadhow stretcher

grava ros m gravadhow wheelbarrow

gravyans engraving

gre f greyow herd, flock

gre sodhogyl official status

grêf m grêvys grief

greun col greunen grains; berries

greun olew col greunen olives

greunvooscereal (incl for breakfast)

grêvya grieve tr

gris See stair

grolyak adj grolyogyon whinger

gromercy (gramercy) [dhis / dhe why] (meur ras dhis / dhywgh, Dùrdala dhe why) phr (a2, rag) thank you (for) Note construction gromercy dhis ha ty dhe wil neppëth + verb-noun = thank you for doing sth

gromyal m/growl; rumble

grow grit

growedha (gorwedha) lie [down] Note 2nd state wrowedha

groweth See a’y wroweth

grownd ground (especially figuratively) Note 2nd state wrownd

growndya base (argument, assumption etc) Note 2nd state wrowndya

growyn (rabmen ‖) col growynen gravel

grug col heather

grugys m grugysow belt; zone Note 2nd state wrugys, wrugysow

grugys sawder m grugysow safety belt; life-belt

gùbman seaweed

gùhy col gùhien wasps

gul See gwil

gùlan (gwylan) f gùlanas [sea]gull

gûn f gonyow down[land], moor[land]

gùstel m gùstlow riot

gùsygen f gùsygednow bladder; blister; black pudding

gùsygen air f gùsygednow balloon (toy)

gwacter emptiness, void; vacuum

gwadn adj weak; dim (light) Comp gwadna (gwadnha)

gwadnheweaken; dim (light)

gwadnrêwlyamismanage Verbal adj gwadnrêwlys but no other inflection

gwag adj empty, vacant; hungry (between meals) Comp gwacka

gwain m gwains gain, profit

gwainya gain; win (incl game)

gwaityans expectation


gwall See also dre wall

gwana pierce Verbal adj gwenys

gwanas m gwanasow puncture; piercing

gwander weakness

gwandra wander; ramble Note phrase gas cavow dhe wandra = don’t worry

gwara goods (bought and sold)

gwardya guard

gwarak f gwaregow bow; arch

gwarak an glaw rainbow

gwarak wysk f gwaregow coat-hanger

gwariel f gwariellow toy

gwarior m gwarioryon player (game); actor

gwarnya warn

gwarnyans m gwarnyansow warning; notice (upcoming event)

gwarr f gwarrow neck (nape); shoulders (loosely)

gwartha adj/m gwarthavyon upper; top

gwarthek col cattle (typically cows)

gwarthevya predominate

gwarthowl f gwarthowlow stirrup

gwary m/v gwariow play (incl in theatre); game Pret gwarias See also dhe wary

gwary bord m gwariow board game

gwary dall m gwariow raffle

gwary dauns m gwariow dance (event)

gwary fol m gwariow farce (incl figuratively)

gwary ilow m gwariow musical

gwary kenys m gwariow opera

gwary mil dabm m gwariow jigsaw puzzle

gwary mir m gwariow spectacle (entertainment)

gwary wàr eryow phr pun, play on words

gwaryjym gwarijiow ‖ theatre (indoor)

gwaryva f gwaryvaow stage (theatre)

gwas m gwesyon assistant (shop etc); waiter; fellow, chap, guy

gwasca press, squeeze, compress Verbal adj gweskys See note at gweskel

gwascas pressure

gwask press (incl media)

gwastas adj level

gwastell f gwastellow wafer

gwâv m gwavow winter


gway m gwayow move[ment], motion

gwaya move (physically)

gwaya-mir ‖ (cynema) cinema

gwaynten spring (season)

gweder m gwedrow glass

gweder aspias (pellwelor) m gwedrow telescope

gweder lyw m gwedrow stained glass

gweder meras (myrour) m gwedrow mirror

gwëdh col gwedhen trees

gwedhyl m gwedhylyow amount left over; balance (on account)

gwëdhpoll chess

gwedhen-venm gwedhen-venow ‖ [tree] trunk

gwedhow adj widowed

gwedhra wither

gwednal (gwenhal) f gwenyly swallow (bird); shuttle[cock]

gwedren f gwedrednow glass (for drinking)

gwel m gwelyow field (open, also physics and figuratively)

gwel m & f sight (sth seen) See also mos mes a wel

gwelen f gwelyny stick, rod; cue (for pool etc)

gwelen debry f gwelyny chopstick

gwelen eva f gwelyny straw (for drinking)

gweles see Fut gwelvyth Note also gwelyr = see in cross-references

gwelha See gwella

gwelhe ‖ (gwella) improve

gweljow (gwelsow) bian gwelsevyow scissors

gwell adj better ; *prefer Usually precedes its noun but may follow for emphasis See also dhe well

gwella (gwelha) adj best Usually precedes its noun but may follow for emphasis See also an gwella oll ganso, gwil gwella galla, oll an gwella

gwella v See gwelhe

gwels col gwelsen grass

gwelsow bian See gweljow bian

gwely m gweliow bed

gwely dëdh (loven, sôfa) m gweliow couch, settee, sofa

gwèn anus

Gwener See de Gwener Also means Venus (and is then feminine)

gwengel wriggle, squirm

gwenhal See gwednal

gwenogen f gwenogednow wart

gwenogen troos f gwenogednow verruca

gwenwharth ‖ m gwenwharthow ‖ grin


gwenyn col gwenenen bees

gwer adj green Note an Weryon = the Greens

gweres m/v help (orth = with) Note construction gweres [dhe] nebonen ow qwil neppëth = help sb to do sth See also gwil gweres dhe2

gweres mona subsidy

gweresor m gweresoryon helper

gwerghsys virginity

gwerhes See an Werhes

gwern f gwernow mast (incl for communication)

gwerrya fight a war

gwerryans m gwerryansow war[fare]

gwers f gwersyow verse

gwersyon See versyon

gwerth sale

gwertha sell

gwerthjy See shoppa

gwerthor m gwerthoryon seller; salesman

gweryn folk; pieces (chess etc)

gwerynor m gwerynoryon peasant; worker (proletarian); pawn (chess)

gwerynvôta See referendùm

gweryson See reward

gweskel beat, strike; hit (target) Note that gwasca and gweskel are essentially the same word: only the verb-nouns have distinct forms

gwestva hospitality; guest room

gwesty m gwestiow guest house

Gwesyon (Mebyon) pl Gents (toilet)

gwetha (gwitha) (rag) keep, preserve, protect (from) Imperative gwith

gwetha v See gwethhe

gwethhe ‖ (gwetha intr only) worsen; aggravate

gwethyas m gwethysy guard; carer

gwethyas âls m gwethysy coastguard

gwethyas cres m gwethysy police officer

gwethyas diogeleth m gwethysy security guard

gwethyas train m gwethysy train manager

gwethyas treth m gwethysy lifeguard (on beach)

gwethyn adj supple, flexible; tough (meat)

gwetyas expect, anticipate Inflected stem gwait- Note construction gwetyas + verb-noun / na2 + subjunctive see to it that (not) – in practice indirect statement may carry the same sense

gwe'us m gwessyow lip

gwêvya wave (hand etc); wag (tail)

gwewen (seul) f gwewednow heel (foot, shoe)

gweyth m gweythyow work

gweytha exploit (sth); operate (sth); work intr (device)

gweythor m gweythoryon worker

gweythor chy m gweythoryon construction worker

gweythor plobm See plobmyor

gweythva f gweythvaow factory; workplace

gwia weave; wind (river, road etc)

gwia wàr najedhow phr knit

gwias web (incl internet); textile, fabric

gwiasva f gwiasvaow website

gwibya dart; sprint

gwihal squeak, squeal; creak

gwil (gul) make; do Note constructions ev a wra gwil neppëth = he will / is going to do sth, gwil dhe nebonen gwil neppëth = make sb do sth See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

gwil devnyth a2 phr utilize, make use of

gwil ergh phr snow verb

gwil fors a2 phr mind, care about

gwil ges a2 phr pull (sb’s) leg

gwil glaw phr rain verb

gwil gwella galla (gwil oll y ehen) phr do his best

gwil gweres dhe2 phr help, assist

gwil marthùjyon phr be amazed

gwil mencyon a2 phr mention verb

gwil oll y ehen See gwil gwella galla

gwil powes phr have a rest

gwil revrons dhe2 phr respect (sb)

gwil sens phr make sense

gwil vry a2 phr heed; respect (sb, sth)

gwil warlergh phr imitate

gwin wine

gwir adj/m gwiryow (dhe2) true, genuine; real; right (to) See also dhe wir, in gwir

gwir pryntya copyright

gwirhaval See lyckly

gwiryon adj honest, sincere; innocent

gwiryoneth (gwrioneth) truth; honesty; reality See also in gwrioneth

gwith custody; care (protective) See also kemeres with

gwitha See gwetha

gwithty See hendrajy

gwithva store; ward (hospital)

gwlân col wool

gwlân coton col cotton wool

gwlanek adj/m gwlanegyon woollen; jumper, pullover

gwlas f gwlasow country, land (political)

gwragh f gwrahas hag; witch; woodlouse

gwreck m gwreckys wreck

gwredhek adj original

gwredhen f gwredhyow root

gwreg f gwrageth wife

gwres See meur y wres

gwresak adj ardent, fervent

gwrians activity

gwrias sew

gwrîhon col gwrihonen sparks

gwrioneth See gwiryoneth

gwrydnya (orth; in) grapple (with); squeeze, squash (into)

gwrÿth actions, performance

gwybes col gwybesen gnats, midges, mosquitos

gwybessa v no inflection waste time

gwycor m gwycoryon trader, dealer (legal, illegal)

gwydhyow See vydeô

gwydn adj white Comp gwydna (gwydnha)

gwydn y vÿs phr lucky, fortunate

Gwydngala See mis Gwydngala

gwydnrudh ‖ (pynk) adj pink

gwydnyk adj pale

gwylan See gùlan

gwylanel f gwylanellow glider

gwylcoos m gwylcosow jungle

gwylfos wilderness

gwyls adj wild Comp gwylsa

gwynder whiteness; paleness

gwynkya wink

gwyns m gwynsow wind

gwynsak adj windy

gwysca dress (sb); put on (sth); wear (clothes, jewellery)

gwyscas m gwyscosow layer; outfit

gwysk costume, attire

gwyskva f gwyskvaow changing room

gwystel m gwystlow hostage; bet

gwystel tir See morgaja

gwystla bet

gwythres m gwythresow action; function

gwythres ûsys m gwythresow routine

gwythresa action, implement; function

gwythresek adj gwythresegyon active; practical (sb)

gwythresor m gwythresoryon activist; executive (business)

gwythy col gwythien veins

gwythy brâs col gwythien vrâs arterieshe

gwyver m gwyvrow wire (material, individual)

gwyw (gweff) adj worthy; suitable Comp gwywa (gweffa)

gwyw dhe nôtya phr newsworthy

gwywder suitability

gwywer m gwyweras squirrel

gyew col gyewen tendons; gristle

gyga-1 pref giga-

gyttern (gyttren) m gytterns guitar

gyttren See gyttern

gyvyans forgiveness


ha + noun / pron intredhans phr including

ha browsyon bara in y gerhyn phr in breadcrumbs

ha kestew in y gerhyn phr in batter

ha pelha See ha pella

ha pella (ha pelha) phr what’s more, furthermore

hacter ugliness; cruelty

hag erel (h.e.) phr et cetera (etc)

hager [y semlant] phr ugly Comp hackra

hager-2 pref nasty

hager-viajphr dreadful business

hâlya haul Interj hâla treated as imperative

hanaf m hanavow cup

Hanaf an Bÿs The World Cup

hanaf hir m hanavow mug (coffee, tea etc)

hanaja sigh; groan; murmur

hanajen f hanajednow sigh; groan; murmur

handla handle (all senses) Verbal adj hendlys or hyndlys

haneth adv tonight, this evening

hanow m henwyn name; reputation Note construction py hanow os? = what’s your name? See also meur y hanow 

hanow crev m henwyn noun

hanow dâ fame

hanow gwadn See nasêr

hans See in hans dhe2



hanter-ourm hanter-ourys ‖ half hour

hanvos m/v exist(ence)

hanwans nomination

hap See dre hap, pàr hap

hapnya (happya) happen (especially by chance)

happya See hapnya

hapwarygamble, gambling

harbereth gwlasek political asylum

hardh adj confident, competent (action) Comp hartha

hardha v no verbal adj bark

hardhva barking

hardlych See harlych

harlych (hardlych) adv strictly, precisely

harp m harpys harp

has col hasen seeds; semen

hashnos m hashnosow ‖ hash tag

hasletm haslettys ‖ contraceptive

hast See dre hast

hat See hot

hâtya hate

hâv m havow summer 

haval adj (dhe2) like, similar (to)

havalder See hevelep

havyas m havysy summer visitor

havyas campya m havysy camper

hawnsel breakfast

hayl estuary

heb awhêr phr readily, willingly

heb bry phr invalid

heb comfort phr uncomfortable (sth)

heb còst phr free (no charge)

heb côwsel a2 phr not to mention

heb danjer phr without hesitation (eagerly)

heb dowt phr without doubt, certainly

heb drog phr innocent (conduct)

heb gass phr still (bottled water)

heb hedhy phr constant(ly)

heb iny phr willingly

heb ken phr without cause, for no reason

heb kespar phr single (status)

heb les vëth phr useless

heb let See dystowgh

heb mar [na martesen] phr without doubt, of course

heb otham (dres otham) phr unnecessary, unnecessarily

heb perthynas phr irrelevant

heb prevyans phr inexperienced

heb reckna phr excluding

heb teythy specyal phr mediocre

heb wow phr without doubt

hedhes reach (as far as); hand (sth to sb)

hedhon adj portable

hedhy stop intr (action, motion) Pret hedhys See also heb hedhy

hedhyw adv today

hedorr adj fragile

h.e. See hag erel

hedna See awos hedna, dre hedna, gans hedna, rag hedna See Grammar Words for pronominal use

Hedra See mis Hedra

hegar adj friendly, amiable

hel adj generous (sb), hospitable Comp moy hel

hel m & f helow hall

helavar adj eloquent

helghyans hunting

hembrynkyas m hembrynkysy leader

hèn yw (h.y.) phr that is (i.e.)

hèn yw dhe leverel phr that is to say

hèn yw dhe styrya phr namely

hendrajy ‖ (gwithty) m hendrajiow ‖ museum

hengovek See tradycyonal

hens m hensy lane (dual carriageway, motorway); path (to sth specific, incl in computing)

hens horn m hensy railway

hens tira m hensy runway

hensador m hensadoryon guidebook; road map (incl figuratively)

hensador lorednek m hensadoryon satnav

henwel name

henwhedhel m henwhedhlow legend

hepcor forgo, do without

herdhya push, shove, thrust

hern col hernen pilchards, sardines

hern gwydn col hernen wydn herrings

hern ôpyn col hernen kippers

hernes gear, equipment; harness

hernessya equip; harness

herwyth See acordyng dhe

herwyth bodh adv optional(ly)

herwyth lojyk prep logical(ly)

hës length

hes f hesow flock (birds); swarm; shoal (fish)

heskedna saw

hesken f heskednow saw (tool)


hevelep (hevelepter, havalder) likeness, similarity Also used by some as adj = haval

hevelepter See hevelep

hevelly (dhe2) seem, appear; liken (to) Pret formed with gwil

hevleny adv this year

hewel adj visible

hewil (hewul) adj feasible, practical (sth)

hewul See hewil

hil f hilyow race (ethnic)

hilieth racism

hir adj long; tall (person) Comp hirra (hirha)

hirbedrak adj oblong

hirder length; height, stature

hireth longing; loneliness; homesickness; nostalgia

hirethek adj lonely; homesick; nostalgic

hirgornm hirgern ‖ trumpet

hirgrenadj oval


hobba m hobbys hobby

hockya hesitate

hockya in y gows phr stutter, stammer

hockyans hesitation

hogen See alebma rag

hogen See whiogen

hôk m hôkys hawk

hôk caryn m hôkys vulture

hol See an hol

holan m holanow salt

holanek adj salty

holergh adj late (in time, after time due)

holya (folya) follow (incl on-line)

holyor (sewyas) m holyoryon follower

honen-skeusenf honen-skeusednow ‖ selfie

honensys identity

honenus adj selfish

honenuster selfishness

hons See in hans dhe2

hoos m heyjy duck

hora f horys prostitute

hordh See an Hordh

hormôn m hormônow hormone

horn m hern iron

hornel f hornellow iron (for clothes)

horoscôpm horoscôpow ‖ horoscope

hos adj hoarse

hot (hat) m hottys hat

hothfy See whethfy

howl sun; sunlight See also gans / warbydn an howl

howlek adj sunny; solar

howl-lenf howl-lednow ‖ sun umbrella



hùbbadùllya din, racket; razz[a]matazz

hudhyk adj gleeful, elated

hudor m hudoryon magician

hûjes See cowrek

hulla nightmare

hùmbrank lead, escort Pret hùmbroncas Verbal adj hùmbrenkys or hùmbrynkys

hûmour humour

hunek adj sleepy

hunrosm hunrosow ‖ dream


hùrtya hurt (sb) or intr

hus magic

h.y. See hèn yw

hyckas hiccup

hyga tease; cheat

hympna m hympnys hymn

Hyndû adj/m Hyndûs Hindu

Hyndûyieth Hinduism

hyntya hint



iconek adj iconic

idhyow col idhyowen ivy

idn adj narrow (in several dimensions) Comp idna (idnha)

idol m idols idol (all senses)

idyot See bobba

iffarn m iffarnow hell

iffarnak adj hellish

igam-ogamadv zigzag

ilow See mûsyk

imach m imajys statue; image

imajery m sculpture (art); imagery

imûneth m imûnedhow immunity

i'n contrary part phr on the contrary; on the other hand

i'n côstys-maphr in these parts, around here

i'n eur-maphr now

i'n eur-na ‖ (nena) phr then

i'n gwella prës phr fortunately

i'n gwetha prës phr unfortunately

i'n kettermyn phr at the same time

i'n mên-termynphr meanwhile

i'n tor'-maphr at this moment

i'n tor'-naphr at that moment

in aray an abecedary phr in alphabetical order

in bàn phr up motion; upstairs motion

in cres prep in / into the middle of

in dadn avîsment phr under consideration

in dadn gel phr secret(ly)

in dadn scoos prep under the auspices of

in dadn vewgh prep sponsored by

in danjer prep subject to

in despît (spit) dhe2 despite, in spite of

in ewn angùs phr in agony

in gwir phr indeed

in gwrioneth phr actually, in fact

in hans (hons) dhe2 prep beyond

in hons dhe See in hans dhe

in kerdh (ker) phr away motion

in kerhyn prep + poss pron [all] around Note construction [neb dyllas] in y gerhyn = wearing (sth)

in ketelma phr in the same way

in kever prep + poss pron in respect of, in relation to

in le prep + noun in le a2 prep + verb-noun, pron instead of

[in] mes phr out[side] motion

[in] mes a2 prep out of motion

[in] mesk prep among

in nans See wàr nans

in neb câss phr in any case, anyway, anyhow

[in] neb fordh (maner) phr somehow

in neb le (plâss) phr somewhere Pronounced as ‘in nebla’

[in] neb maner See [in] neb fordh

in neb plâss See in neb le

in nes phr near, close (to) position (adv & prep + noun)

in ober phr in fact See also damcanieth

in ogas prep + poss pron near, close to position

in poynt dâ phr fit, in good shape

in pùb le (plâss) phr everywhere Pronounced as ‘in pùbla’

in pùb plâss See in pùb le

in (wàr2) rag phr forwards; fast (clock)

in sevureth phr carelessly, recklessly

in spit dhe2 See in despît dhe2

in (wàr2) udn labm phr in next to no time

in udn rew phr in a row, one after another

inclynya pedn phr nod

indelha See indella

indella (indelha) adv like that

indella re bo phr so be it

indelma adv like this

informatyk m & IT, ICT

inia urge; insist (on) Note constructions inia wàr nebonen gwil neppëth = urge sb to do sth, inia nebonen dhe wil neppëth = insist that sb does sth

iniadow urging; insistence

injyn adj/m injynys ingenious; contrivance; contraption

injynor m injynoryon engineer

injynorieth engineering

ink ink

inkyl glena sticky tape

inspîrya inspire

installya instal (all senses)

intendya See porposya

interpretacyon m interpretacyons interpretation

intertainya entertain (hospitality, amusement)

inwedh adv also, too, even

iny See heb iny

iredy (eredy) adv indeed

is-1 pref sub-, vice-

iscargm iscargow ‖ download



isel adj low Comp isella (iselha)

iselbrisadj cheap (positive, negative)


Islâm Islam

Islâmek adj Islamic


ispanm ispadnow ‖ lining

ispoyntm ispoyntys ‖ minimum

ispoyntekadj minimum; minimal

istory (story) m istorys history; story

istyna extend; pass (sth to sb)

istynans (istynyans) m istynansow extension; supplement (document, magazine)

istynyans See istynans



jag m jaggys jolt; shock (electric)

jàm See kyfeth

jardyn See lowarth

jarn See lowarth

jëdh See dëdh

jèl m jelys gel

jerkyn m jerkyns jacket

jerkyn sawder m jerkyns life jacket

Jesu Crist Jesus Christ

jewal See jowal

jîns pl jeans

jôker m jôkers joker (in cards)

jolyf adj cheerful

jolyfter cheerfulness

jorna m jornys day (as frame for events)

jornal (lyver termyn) m jornalys magazine

jornalyst m jornalystyon journalist

jowal (jewal) m jowelys jewel

jowl See dyowl

joy See lowender

jûbylê m jûbylês jubilee

jùglya juggle

jùj m jùjys judge

jùjment m jùjmentys judgement

jùjya judge

jùnya join, connect Note constructions jùnya dhe nebonen = join sb (come together) and jùnya dhe neppëth = join sth (become a member)

jùnyans dywyver wireless connection, WiFi

jùst adj just

jùstyfia justify

jùstys m jùstycyow justice; magistrate

jyn m jynys machine; engine, motor

jyn crâna m jynys crane (machine)

jyn dywros m jynys motorcycle

jyn êthen m jynys steam engine

jyn falhas m jynys lawnmower

jyn ilow See jyn seny

jyn kemysky See kemyscor

jyn neyja See airen

jyn sarchya m jynys search engine

jyn seny (jyn ilow) m jynys player

jyn tedna m jynys tractor

jyn tôknys m jynys ticket machine

jynevra gin

jynjy m jynjiow ‖ engine house

jynjyber ginger


jynweythekadj mechanical

jynweythorm jynweythoryon ‖ mechanic

jynyk m jynygow device, gadget

jypser See scryp



ke m keow fence; hedge

keas fenester m keasow shutter

keber f kebryow beam (wood, metal); chevron

kedhlow pl information This word has been borrowed from Breton. It is not found in historical Cornish texts as sometimes claimed. If the word previously existed in Cornish it would have meant ‘news’ or ‘gossip’. It is best avoided. Prefer derivadow, avîsyans, kevarweth according to context.

kedhow mustard

kedrydn row (quarrel)

kef m kefyon stump (tree)

kefnys col kefnysen spiders Note that for some the f in this word is silent

kefrës adv also, too, even See also kefrës ... ha in Grammar Words

kefrysek adj federal

kefrysyans alliance; [con]federation

kegy cook Verbal adj kegys but no other inflection

kegyn f kegynow kitchen

kegynieth cooking; cuisine

kegynor m kegynoryon chef

kehaval adj (ha) equal (to)

kehavalyans m kehavalyansow equation

keher[yn] m keherydnow muscle

kel See in dadn gel

keles hide, conceal

kelgh m kelhow circle, ring; cycle; circuit; hoop; sphere (loosely)

kelghlytherm kelghlytherow ‖ circular, newsletter

kelghresterf kelghrestry ‖ rota

kelghtrof kelghtroyow ‖ orbit; lap (pitch, track); round (doctor, tradesman)

kell f kellow cell (for prisoner etc)

kelly lose; miss (bus etc) Pret collas See also ow kelly

kellyn scum (floating, incl oil)

kelmy tie, bind Pret colmas

kelmys ganso phr related, connected

kelorn See bùcket


Kelt m Keltyon Celt

Keltek adj Celtic

kelyn col kelynen holly

kelyon col kelyonen flies

Kembrek adj Welsh As masculine noun = the Welsh language, optionally preceded by an

kemek m kemegyon chemical

kemenessa See kemunessa

kemeneth f kemenethow (kemenedhow) community

kemeres take; receive Imperative kebmer (tan), kemerowgh (tanowgh)

kemeres (tedna) dhyworth phr subtract / deduct from

kemeres in prestyans phr borrow (money)

kemeres le phr replace (A taking the place of B)

kemeres (perthy) meth phr (a2) be ashamed (of), be embarrassed (by)

kemeres (perthy) own phr (a2) be afraid (of)

kemeres preder phr (a2) consider (sth)

kemeres pyta orth phr pity verb The Cornish expression may also be used absolutely without orth

kemeres radn phr (in) take part, participate (in)

kemeres (perthy) scruth phr be horrified / shocked

kemeres tan phr catch fire

kemeres (gorra) with phr (a2, dhe2) take care (of, to)

kemerys yn frâs gans phr impressed by

kemmyn adj common; ordinary; general Pre-occluded bm is rare

kemmysk mix[ture], blend; medley; miscellany Also used as adj hybrid Pre-occluded bm is rare

kempedna tidy

kempen adj neat-and-tidy; compact

kempensys neatness, tidiness

kemunessa (kemenessa) v no inflection communicate

kemusur adj symmetrical; proportionate

kemyscor (jyn kemysky) m kemyscoryon mixer

kemysky mix, blend; confuse (sth) Pret kemyscas

kemysky y honen in phr get involved in

ken attributive adj/adv other, else (indefinite only); otherwise Note that ken as adj precedes a noun or numeral, follows a pron See also na hen

ken cause (incl legal proceedings) See also heb ken

ken maner phr alternative adj

kenak col kenogen boggy ground (marked by reeds) 

kenderow m kenderewy cousin (male)

kendon debt; obligation; liability (legal, financial) Note construction bos in kendon rag = owe

kenedhlek (nacyonal) adj national

kenen f kenednow film (incl for wrapping)

kenen lagas f kenednow cataract

kenertha boost; encourage

kenreydhakadj/m kenreydhogyon ‖ heterosexual

kenseth m kensedhow lobby

kenter f kentrow nail; spike

kenter tro See screw

kentrevakm kentrevogyon neighbour


kentrewy nail Pret kentrewys

kenwerthtrade, commerce


kenwes m kenwesow feast

kenwharvedhyans coincidence

kenyn ewynak col garlic

kenytherow f kenytherewy cousin (female)

kepar (pecar) adj like, similar Note phrase kepar (pecar) ha = like prep

ker adj dear (all senses) Comp kerra (kerha)

ker See in kerdh

kerdh walk[ing] See also in kerdh

kerdhes (walkya) walk

kerdhfôn ‖ (clapgûth ‖) m kerdhfônow ‖ mobile [phone] See also pellgowsor

kerdhor m kerdhoryon walker; pedestrian

keredhy reproach Pret keredhas

kerenjedhek adj affectionate

kerensa love, affection See also rag kerensa

kerensa an bobel popularity

keres col keresen cherries

kereth reproach; penalty (incl football)

kerhes fetch, bring Imperative kergh

kerhydna surround

kerhyn See in kerhyn

kerna See crena

Kernow m Kernowyon Cornishman

Kernowek adj Cornish As adj often replaced by a Gernow As masculine noun = the Cornish language, optionally preceded by an See also cragh-Gernowek

kert m kertys cart, wagon

kert adrëv m kertys trailer (vehicle)

kert jyn m kertys lorry, truck (road)

kervya carve

kesassoylyans compromise

kescân ilow m kescanow concert

keschaunj exchange, swap

keschaunjya exchange, swap

kescodhevyans commiseration, sympathy

kescowethyans m kescowethyansow partnership; relationship, relations

kescows conversation, dialogue

kescôwsel See talkya

kescùssulyans m kescùssulyansow conference

keser col keseren hail

kesgwlasek adj international

kes'hens m kes’hensy junction (motorway etc)

keskerdhes go in procession; march

keskerth procession; march

keskians See consyans

keslînek adj parallel


kesobery co-operate Pret kesoberas

kesordna co-ordinate

kespar m & f kesparow partner (in relationship) See also heb kespar

kesparthek adj reciprocal, mutual

kesplottya (brasy) v plot, conspire

kespos balance, equilibrium

kesposa balance (sth)

kesrosweyth See an Kesrosweyth

kesscrefa (gans) correspond

kessedhek (pollgor) m kessedhegyon committee

kessenyans harmony; consistency

kesson adj/m kessonyow harmonious; consistent; consonant

kesstrîf m kesstrîfow competition, contest

kesstrîvya compete

kesstrîvyans competition (commercial etc)

kesstrîvyor m kesstrîvyoryon competitor (all senses); contestant

kessydhyans sanctions

kestaf m kestavow contact (all senses)

kestalkya See talkya

kesten (castan) col kestenen chestnuts

kestevyn See concrît

kesudnya combine

kesudnyans combination

kesudnyans lavur trade union

kesva f kesvaow board (organization)

keswel m & f keswelyow interview

ketelma See in ketelma

keth m kethyon slave; addict

kethneth slavery; addiction

kethreydhakadj/m kethreydhogyon ‖ homosexual, same-sex


keur m keuryow choir

keus cheese

kevalaf capital (finance)

kevalavieth (capytalorieth) capitalism

kevals m kevalsyow joint (incl meat)

kevambos m kevambosow contract; treaty

Kevardhu See mis Kevardhu

kevarhewy invest Pret kevarhewys

kevarwedha direct (all senses)

kevarwedhor m kevarwedhoryon director (all senses)

kevarweth f kevarwedhyow directory, information

kevelsys adj articulated (lorry etc)

kever See in kever

keveryans orientation

keveylya accompany (musically)

kevoos adj/m kevosyon contemporary

kevradna share; allot Verbal adj kevrydnys

kevradnak (kevrednak) adj/m kevranogyon participant

kevradnor m kevranoryon shareholder

kevran f kevradnow share (incl in company)

kevrath m & f kevradhow rate

kevrednak See kevradnak

kevren m & f kevrednyon fastener; link (to website etc); conjunction (grammar)

kevren vew See zyp

kevres m & f kevresow series

kevresek adj serial

kevreth m & f kevrêthyow system

kevrêthek adj systematic

kevrîn m kevrînyow mystery; secret

kevrînek adj mysterious; secret

kevrivyador See amowntyor

kevrol f kevrolyow volume (book)

kewar adj accurate

kewar weather

kewarhen cannabis, marijuana

kewera v keep (promise); make (bed)

kewerder accuracy

kewlet pluv m kewlettys duvet

kewny col kewnien moss; loosely lichen; loosely mildew

keworra add

keworrans m keworransow addition, supplement

keworransus adj additional, supplementary

keworransyn m keworransydnow additive

keybal ferry (boat, ship)

keyfordhf keyfordhow ‖ tunnel

keyn m keynow back (anatomical or ‘quasi-anatomical’ – e.g. of chair)

kibya snatch; take (photo)

kig flesh; meat

kig an dens gum(s)

[kig] bowyn beef

kig leugh veal

kig ôn lamb

kig porhel pork

kig yar chicken (meat)

kigsconyor See losowdebror

kil m kîlyow back [end] (of sth); recess

kil m kîlys skittle

kildednapull back, withdraw; retreat

kildrof kildroyow ‖ recession

kîlo-1 pref kilo-

kilva f kilvaow background

knack obma / ena phr right here / there; on the spot; on the spur of the moment See also desmygy knack obma / ena

knava m knavys knave; jack (in cards)

knofen gôcô f knofednow côcô coconut

knofen toos f knofednow doughnut

knoukya knock

know col knofen nuts (incl for screws)

know dor col knofen dhor peanuts

ky m keun dog, hound

kybel f kyblow tub; [bath]tub

kybel atal f kyblow skip

kydnyaf autumn

kydnyow m kynyewow dinner

kyfeth (kyfÿth, jàm) jam

kyfeth owravalmarmalade (orange)

kyffewy pl party, celebration (both event and people attending) Note an kyffewy (1st State, not 2nd)

kyffewyas m kyffewysy party-goer

kyfya confide in

kyfÿth See kyfeth

kyjya fuck

kyn pedn See kyns pedn

kynda kind, sort; genus See also dres kynda

kyns adv previously; rather

kyns prep + noun before; + verb-noun before, with negative main clause until

kyns ès prep + noun, non-personal pron before; + verb-noun, infinitive construction before, with negative main clause until 

kyns napell phr before long

kyns oll phr first of all

kyns (kyn) pedn prep within (time)

kyst f kystyow chest (in fixed phrases)

kysten f kystednow box (in fixed phrases)

kyttryn m kyttrynyow bus

kyttryn udn / dew leur m kyttrynyow single- / double-decker bus


lâbel (tôkyn stag) m lâbelyow label

labm m labmow jump, leap See also in udn làm

labmlen See parashûta

labmwelym lamweliow trampoline

lacka adj worse; with definite article worst Usually precedes its noun but may follow for emphasis

lader m ladron thief

ladha kill Verbal adj ledhys

ladhva slaughter; massacre

ladra steal Verbal adj ledrys

ladrans theft, robbery (incl single act)

ladrynsy theft, robbery (always general)

lafyl adj legal

lagas m lagasow eye

lagen f lagednow pond; puddle

lagya splash Verbal adj usually lagyes

laha m lahys law (single, general)

lappya jump about, cavort

larch See larj

larj (larch) adj generous (sth); considerable Comp larjya or larchya

laser m lasers laser

lâss m lâcys lace (all senses)

lath f lathow yard[stick]

latymer m latymerys interpreter

Latyn Latin

laun m launow blade; flake, sliver

launchya launch

launder (cawn to) m laundrys gutter (roof)

lavar m lavarow remark; expression; sentence See also wàr verr lavarow

lavar coth m lavarow proverb

lavaren f lavarednow phrase

lavasos presume, dare Verbal adj lavesys

lavrak m lavregow trousers

lavrak cot m lavregow shorts

lavrak nessa m lavregow pants

lavrak neyja m lavregow swimshorts

lavregyn m lavregydnow panties

lavregyn neyja m lavregydnow swimming trunks

lavur labour (incl childbirth); work (for a living)

lavurya labour; work (for a living); travel (with effort) Note lavurys laborious; worn out (sb)

lawl See leverel

le adv/quant [a2] less, fewer As adv le precedes its adj See also dhe le

le m leow place (in fixed expressions) See in le, in neb le, in pùb le, kemeres le

lebma sharpen

lebmel jump, leap Pret lebmys or labmas

lebmyn adv now

ledan adj broad, wide

ledanhebroaden, widen

leder f ledrow slope, slant; bias

lêder See lêdyor

ledn f lednow blanket; nappy Note tendency to add wely or vaby to clarify meaning

ledn dewl (dhu) f lednow tewl blind

ledrek adj sloping, slanted; biased

lêdya lead

lêdyor (lêder) m lêdyoryon leader

legest m legesty lobster

legestyk m legestygow prawn

legestyk Bay Dulynm legestygow scampi

legh f lehow slab (stone); ledge; slate (for writing); tablet (device)

legh fenester f lehow window sill

lehereduce, diminish

lehen f lehednow slate, tile (for roofing) Sometimes also for writing or device

lejer (padel fria) frying pan

lel adj loyal; honest Sometimes prefixed as lel-1 = faithful, true

lelder loyalty; honesty

lemyga sip

len adj faithful

lêna See lendya

lendya (lêna) lend (sth specific)

lenky swallow Pret loncas

lent adj slow Comp lenta

lent’heslow down

lenwel (a2) fill (with)

les breadth, width

les interest; welfare See also dhe les, heb les vëth

les brâs dhodho yw phr he is interested in

les cul phr narrow-gauge adj (railway)

lêsa spread

lesbyan adj lesbian

lesbyanes f lesbyanesow lesbian

lesca swing; rock

lesha m leshys leash, lead

les’hanowm les’henwyn ‖ nickname

les’hensm les’hensy ‖ by-pass

lesk m lescow swing (motion); cradle

lesk lovan swing(s) (playground)

lesky burn Pret loscas

lêsres ‖ latitude

lesson m lessons lesson

lessons tre pl homework

lestasm lestasow ‖ stepfather

lester m lestry vessel (all senses); pl dishes (to be washed)

lester flourys m lestry vase

lester sedhy m lestry submarine

let m lettys obstacle, hindrance; setback See also heb let

leth milk

leth shakys milkshake

lether leather

lettya (rag) prevent, stop [from]

letys col leytysen lettuce(s)

leun adj (a2) full (of) Comp leuna (leunha) See also cowl-

leun a dhedhewadow phr promising

leunstrothleunstrothow ‖ lockdown

leur m leuryow ground; floor (incl storey)

leurlenf leurlednow ‖ carpet

leurneth (arenebeth) m leurnedhow area (measurement)

leurweth adj horizontal

leuv f leuvyow hand (generally, but outside poetry mostly in fixed phrases)

lev (voys) m levow voice 

level m levelyow level, tier

Level A m Levelyow A Level (examination, qualification)

leven adj smooth, even (incl number) Comp lefna (lefnha) or moy leven

levender smoothness, evenness

levenhe ‖ (levna) smooth, even out; iron (clothes)

leverel (lawl) (dhe2) say (to) Pret leverys or lavaras See also hèn yw dhe leverel

leveryans m leveryansow pronunciation

leveryas m leverysy spokesman

levna See levenhe

lew m lewyow helm (steering)

lew See lion See also an Lew

lewyador m lewyadoryon pilot

lewyas steer; drive (vehicle)

lewyor m lewyoryon driver

lewyth m lewydhyon governor (school); moderator (debate)

leyth adj limp; humid Comp leytha

leythter limpness; humidity

lia See tia

liednak adj literary

lien literature

lien bord m lienyow tablecloth

lien codna m lienyow scarf

lien dêwla m lienyow hand towel; table napkin, serviette

lien dorn (dornlien ‖, nackyn) m lienyow handkerchief

lien dorn paper m lienyow tissue (for wiping nose etc)

lien gwely m lienyow [bed]sheet

lien seha lestry m lienyow tea towel


lies quant + singular noun many See Grammar Words for pronominal use

liesek adj plural


liesleuradj multistorey

limavalm limavallow ‖ lime (fruit)

lin flax; linen 

lînedna sketch, outline

lînednor m lînenoryon draughtsman; linesman; ruler (for ruling lines)

lînen f lînednow line; track (railway) See also wàr lînen

lînen gedya (gedlînen) f lînednow guideline

lion (lew) m lionas lion

lis mud

lîsak adj muddy

lîter m lîtrow litre

liv m lîvyow flood

liv f lîvyow file (for nails etc)

lo f loyow spoon

loas m loasow spoonful

lobbya lobby

loder m lodrow stocking

lodryk m lodrygow sock

logas col logosen mice

logas brâs col logosen vrâs rats

logh f lohow loch (inlet, lake)

lojyk See herwyth lojyk

lomen pÿs mushy peas

londya land (especially from boat)

loneth f lonethy kidney

longus See perthynek

longya dhe2 See perthyn dhe2

loor moon

loos adj grey; mouldy

loren f lorednow satellite (artificial)

lorgh m lorhow staff, stick

losk pengasen ‖ (bùrlosken) heartburn

loskvenethm loskvenydhyow ‖ volcano

losow col losowen plants, vegetation

losow debry col losowen vegetables (for eating)

losowdebror ‖ (kigsconyor ‖) m losowdebroryon ‖ vegetarian

lost m lostow tail; queue

lostak See lowarn

losten f lostednow skirt

lotry See an Lotry [Kenedhlek]

lovan f lovonow rope

loven See gwely dëdh

lowarn (lostak) m lewern fox

lowarth (jardyn, jarn) m lowarthow garden

lowarthor m lowarthoryon gardener

lowen adj happy, glad Note construction lowen dhe2 = happy / willing to

lowender (joy) happiness, joy

lowenhemake happy; rejoice

lower quant + singular noun quite a few See Grammar Words for pronominal use 

lowr adj/adv/quant [a2] sufficient; quite; enough; a lot of As adv lowr follows its adj

lows adj loose, slack; careless Comp lowssa

lowsel See lowsya

lowsethes negligence

lowsya (lowsel) loosen

lu lestry (morlu ‖) m luyow navy


lùck luck, fortune

lugarn m lugern lamp

luhes col luhesen lightning Singulative also used for flash

luhesy flash Pret luhesas

lùll ha lay phr lullaby

lùlla lull

Lun See de Lun

lus (ÿs du) col lusen bilberries, blueberries

lus rudh col lusen cranberries

lusow col ash(es)

lust m lustys lust

ly (prës ly) m & f lîvyow lunch

lybm adj sharp; pointed; acute Comp lebma

lybral adj/m librals liberal As attributive adj lybral precedes or follows its noun See also an Lybral Democratyon

lycklod likelihood, probability See also dre lycklod

lyckly (gwirhaval) adj likely, probable

lyckya lick

lydn liquid

lydn f lydnow lake

lyfrêson delivery; release (from captivity); acquittal

lyftya lift

lyha adj/adv least, fewest As adv lyha precedes its adj See also dhe’n lyha

lyly col lilien lilies

lylien Corawys See afodyl

lymna paint (art); illustrate

lymnans m lymnansow painting; illustration

lymnor m lymnoryon painter (art); illustrator

lymon m lymonys lemon

lymytya limit

lynas col lynasen nettles

lÿscadnasm lÿscanhasow ‖ ambassador

lystedna bandage

lysten f lystednow bandage

lyther m lytherow letter

lyther kemyn m lytherow will (testament)


lytheren f lytherednow letter (alphabet)

lythergystf lythergystyow ‖ letter-box

lytherjy See sodhva an post

lytherva See sodhva an post

lyver m lyfryow (lyfrow) book

lyver termyn See jornal

lyverjy See lyverva

lyverva (lyverjy ‖) m lyvervaow library

lyvryk See lyvryn

lyvryn m lyvrydnow booklet

lyw See colour

lyw howl [sun]tan

lywa colour, dye



mab m mebyon son; boy Note phrase udn vab = only son

mab den m when indefinite by context human [being]; when definite by context mankind Note that the definite article an is never used with this expression

mab y dhama what’s-his-name

mabm f mabmow mother

mabmek f mamegow matrix

mabm- Compounds beginning mabm- may alternatively be spelled mam-

mabmscrifm mamscrîvyow ‖ original (document)

mabmyêthf mamyêthow ‖ native language

Mabmyk Mummy

madama madam addressing sb

maga feed; nurture, rear; breed Verbal adj megys

magataadv as well

magel f maglow tangle; mesh

maghteth f meghtythyon assistant (shop etc); waitress

maglen f maglednow trap; grid; grating; gear (engine)

magly entangle; change gear Verbal adj maglys but no other inflection

mailya (wrappya) wrap

mailyas wrap[per], packaging

mailyor m mailyoryon envelope

main m mainys medium; means See also an mainys [kemunessa]

mainor m mainoryon agent; broker

mainorieth f mainoriethow agency (all senses)

màl eagerness; *be eager to; *look forward to

malbew dabm phr with express negative at all, with implied negative not at all (emphatic)

màn adv with express negative at all See Numerals for meaning 'zero'

man-2 pref small, fine

mandât m mandâtys mandate

manek f manegow glove

maner f manerow manner (all senses) See also ken maner

mangô m mangôs mango

mantol See montol

mantolly See montolly

manykyn m & f manykyns model (fashion)

manylyon pl details; data See also sel manylyon

mappa m mappys map

mar See heb mar [na martesen] See Grammar Words for use as conj 

mar pleg (my a'th / a'gas pës) phr please

marchont m marchons merchant

margh m mergh horse Note irregular an vergh

margh tan m mergh locomotive (steam)


marhak m marhogyon horseman, rider; knight

marhas f marhajow market See also a varhas dhâ

marhas stockys f marhajow stock market

marhas tiak f marhajow farmers’ market

marhogeth m/v riding; [wàr2] ride (horse, bicycle etc)

marhogieth knighthood

mark See merk

markya See merkya

marnas prep + noun, pron (independent if personal), bos, nominal sentence, adj, adv, adverbial phrase, numeral except; minus Note construction ny ... marnas = only Note very frequent abbreviated form ma’s, mès See Grammar Words for use as conjunction ‘unless’

marner m marners sailor

marow adj dead; stagnant (water); flat (beer) Note construction ev a veu marow = he died

mars yw res phr if necessary Use mars o res in past narrative

mars yw taclow indelma phr in that case

martejen See martesen

martesen (martejen, pàr hap) adv maybe, perhaps See also heb mar [na martesen]

marth (a2) wonder; *be surprised (at) See also er y varth, sordya marth in

marthus See gwil marthùjyon

marthys adj wonderful As adv preceding an adj amazingly, extremely

maryach m maryajys marriage

ma’s See marnas

mason m masons mason (incl freemason)

masonieth freemasonry

mass mass (physics)

mâta m mâtys mate, pal

mater m maters matter (all senses)

maw boy, lad

See mis Mê

mebla furnish

mebyl col furniture

Mebyon See Gwesyon

meder m medrow aim, objective

medhegieth (fysek) medicine (all senses)

medhegneth medication

medhegva f medhegvaow health centre, surgery (GP)

medhegyl adj medical

medhek m medhygyon doctor

medhek teylu m medhygyon family doctor, GP

medhel adj soft; tender Comp medalla (medalha)

medhelder softness; tenderness



medhow adj drunk

medhowynsy drunkenness

medra aim at

mega-1 pref mega-

megles See backa

megy smoke; stifle; muffle Verbal adj megys but no other inflection

megyans nurture, upbringing

mel honey

melder See [ow] melder

melen adj yellow; amber (traffic light, warning)

mellya (gans) meddle, interfere (with)

melwhes col melwhejen slugs

melyas grind

melyn wyns f melynyow gwyns windmill; wind turbine

melysor m melysoryon sweetener

men m meyn stone Note irregular an veyn

mena See meneth

mencyon m mencyons mention See also gwil mencyon a2

meneges indicate; state

menegva f menegvaow index; catalogue

menegyans m menegyansow statement; commentary

menestrouthy band (musical)

meneth (mena) m menydhyow mountain; hill

men-gledhm men-gledhyow ‖ quarry

menowgh adj frequent Note construction yn fenowgh = often See also namenowgh

menta mint (plant)

mentêna See mentênya

mentênour m mentênours conservative

mentênya (mentêna) maintain, uphold

mêny m mênys household; crew

mênya mean (animate subject, not intention)

mênyng meaning

menyster m menysters minister (all senses)

menystra administer, manage

menystror m menystroryon administrator, manager

menystry m menystrys ministry

mer m mêras mayor

meras (miras) (orth, wàr2) look (at) Imperative mir

Merher See de Merher Also means Mercury

merhyk m merhygow pony

merk (mark) m merkys mark (all senses); brand (product)

merk diacrytycal (aken) m merkys diacritical mark, accent (over letter)

merkya (markya) mark; notice; remark

mernans death

Merth See de Merth, mis Merth Also means Mars

merther m mertheryon martyr

merwel die

Meryasek St Meriadoc

meryt m merytys merit

mes See dhe ves, [in] mes, [in] mes a2, wàr ves

mès See marnas See also Grammar Words for use as a conjunction

meschauns disaster

mesk See [in] mesk

messach m messajys message

mêster m mêstrysy master; as title Mr

mêstres f mêstresow mistress; as title Mrs, Ms

mêstresyk f mêstresygow young lady; as title Miss

mêstrynjys mastery, domination; regime (political)

mêsva f mêsvedhow inch

metafor m metaforow metaphor

mêter m mêtrow metre

meth m mothow shame; embarrassment; shyness; *be ashamed / embarrassed / shy; pl breakdown; fiasco See also gorra meth in, kemeres meth

Metheven See mis Metheven

method m methodys method

Methodyst m Methodystyon Methodist

methus adj shameful, disgraceful

methy feed (baby: breast or bottle) Pret methias

metya [gans] meet

metyans m metyansow meeting

meur adj/adv/quant [a2] great; much; a lot of As adv meur precedes a comparative adj See also nameur

meur ras [dhys / dhywgh] See gromercy [dhis / dhe why]

meur y berthyans phr patient

meur y boos phr important

meur y deythy phr gifted

meur y dhydhan phr witty

meur y dros phr noisy

meur y hanow (gerys dâ) phr famous

meur y nell phr forceful

meur y wres phr passionate

meureth greatness

meurgerys adj much loved

mewgh m mewghyow warranty; sponsorship; bail; pl securities (investments) See also in dadn vewgh

mêyonês mayonnaise

mil dov m milas pet

mildirf mildiryow ‖ mile; pl mileage

milva f milvaow zoo

milvedhekm milvedhygyon ‖ vet

min m minyon mouth, lips; beak; brim; edge (blade)

minlen f minlednow ‖ mask (covering nose, mouth)

minlywm minlywyow ‖ lipstick

minvlewmoustache; whiskers (cat)

minwharthm minwharthow ‖ smile


miras See meras

mis m mîsyow month

mis Du adv/m (in) November

mis Ebrel adv/m (in) April

mis Est adv/m (in) August

mis Genver adv/m (in) January

mis Gortheren (Gorefen) adv/m (in) July

mis Gwydngalaadv/m (in) September

mis Hedra adv/m (in) October

mis Kevardhu adv/ (in) December

mis Mê adv/m (in) May

mis Merth adv/m (in) March

mis Metheven (Efen) adv/m (in) June

mis Whevrel adv/m (in) February

mockya mock (with or without humour)

môcyon m môcyons gesture; motion (in debate)

model m modellys model (of / for sth)

modern See arnowyth

modrewy (armel, brehellyk) f modrewiow bracelet, bangle

modryp f modrebeth aunt

mog smoke

moghhe See encressya

mol y bedn phr bald

moldra murder

molgh dhu f molhas du blackbird

momentùm momentum

mon adj slender, slim Comp môna (mônha)

mona m & col money

mona munys m & col small change

mona parys m & col cash

mona spênys See còst spênys

mones See mos


montol (mantol) f montolyow scales (for weighing) See also an Vontol

montolly (mantolly) weigh (sth) Verbal adj montollys but no other inflection

moos f mosow table (mostly in fixed expressions) See settya moos

mop See scubel wolhy

mor m morow sea Note phrase dres mor = overseas, abroad

mor du col moren dhu blackberries

moral adj moral As attributive adj moral precedes or follows its noun

moralyta morality


mordardha See mordardhya

mordardhya ‖ (mordardha ‖) surf

mordhos f mordhojow thigh; ham

mordryg ‖ (tryg) low tide

moreth melancholy 

morgaja (gwystel tir) m morgajys mortgage

morgowl[es] See blùbber

morhoghm morhohas ‖ porpoise

morlanowhigh tide

morlu See lu lestry

mornya v mourn

mortal adj mortal; deadly, fatal, lethal As attributive adj mortal precedes or follows its noun

morthol m mortholow hammer


morvilm morvilas ‖ whale

morvildenjak m morvilas orca, killer whale

morvleydh ‖ (sharca) m morvleydhas shark

mos (mones) go Pret êth Imperative kê, ewgh (kewgh) Verbal adj gyllys

mos adro phr circulate

mos an hens cot phr take a short cut

mos dhe goll phr perish

mos i'n ewn fordh phr go straight (ahead, to somewhere)

mos mes a wel phr disappear

mos rag phr vouch for

mos wàr bedn dêwlin phr kneel down

mosk m moscow mosque

Moslem See Mùslym

most m mostyon dirt, muck

mostethes filth (all senses)

mostya pollute, contaminate

môtorfordhf môtorfordhow ‖ motorway

mousak adj stinking

môvya move (all senses)

môvyans move (all senses); movement, motion; emotion

mowes f mowysy girl, lass

moy (optionally pronounced mùy, rarely so written) adv/quant [a2] more As adv moy precedes its adj See also dhe voy, gorra moy dhe2, namoy, nefra namoy

moy pò le phr more or less

moyha adv/quant most As adv moyha precedes its adj

Mùhamad Muhammad

mùllyon col mùlyonen clover; clubs (in cards)

mûn mineral; ore

mûndalasm mûndalasow ‖ royalty (payment)

munys adj tiny

mùryon col mùryonen ants

muscok adj/m muscogyon mad, insane

muscotter madness, insanity

Mùslym (Moslem) adj/m Muslim

musur m musurow measure (all senses) See also dres musur

musura measure

musurans measurement(s)

musurel f musurellow meter

musurel tomder f musurellow thermometer

mûsycyen m mûsycyens musician

mûsyk (ilow) music

mûtya moult; sulk

mùy See moy

my a’th / a’gas pës See mar pleg

mycro-1 pref micro-

mycrofônm mycrofônow ‖ microphone

mydnas v + verb-noun wish to, want to Note construction ev a vydn gwil neppëth = he will do sth, he is going to do sth See Key Verb Tables for inflected forms

mygla cool (sth hot)

mygyl adj lukewarm, tepid; mild (spices); half-hearted, blasé

Myhal Sans St Michael

myjyn m/quant myjydnow [a2] (a) tiny bit (of)

myly-1 pref milli-

myns size, quantity, amount See also orth an myns See Grammar Words for pronominal use

myns cûbek volume (measurement)

mynysen f mynysow minute

myowal miaow

myrgh f myrhas daughter; girl

myrgh hy dama what’s-her-name

Myrhas pl Ladies (toilet)

myrour See gweder meras

myshef (myshyw) harm

myshevya ruin (all senses)

myshyw See myshef

myssyon m myssyons mission

mytern m myterneth king

myternes f myternesow queen

myttyn adv/m myttynow (in the) morning


interj no

na felha See na fella

na fella (felha) phr with express negative any longer, with implied negative no longer

na fors phr + express or implied question word no matter

na hen adv with express negative otherwise

na whath phr with express negative yet, with implied negative not yet

nackyn See lien dorn

nacyon m nacyons nation

nacyonal See kenedhlek

Nadelyk Christmas Optionally preceded by an

nader f nedras adder, viper

nagh denial; repudiation

naha deny; repudiate Verbal adj nahys or nehys

najeth (nasweth) f najedhow needle

nakevys See ankevy

nàm m namow blemish, stain (incl figuratively)

nama stain (incl figuratively)

namenowgh adv + express or implied negative seldom

nameur quant with express negative much, with implied negative not much

namnygen adv just now, a moment ago

namoy adv with express negative any more, with implied negative no more

naneyl adv with express negative either, with implied negative neither See also naneyl ... na in Grammar Words

nano-1 pref nano-

nans See in nans, wàr nans

nans yw pell phr long ago Use nans o pell in past narrative

NAP abbr (= nyver aswon personek) PIN

napell adv with express negative for long, with implied negative not for long 

nappya have a nap; sleep (computer)

nas See gnas

nasêr m naseryow adjective

nasweth See najeth

natur f naturs nature See also dres natur

naturek adj natural

neb fordh See [in] neb fordh

neb gradh phr to some extent

neb sort a2 phr some sort of

nedh col nedhen nits

nefra adv ever; with implied negative never (present or future reference)

nefra a bes phr as attributive adj eternal

nefra namoy phr with express negative ever again, with implied negative never again (future reference)

negedhek adj negative Note usage e.g. ugans [degrê] negedhek = minus twenty [degrees]

negejyth m negejydhyon commissioner

negejyth gôlyas m negejydhyon ombudsman

negys m negycyow (orth) business (with)

nell might, power See also meur y nell

nen m nenow ceiling

nena See i’n eur-na

nepprës ‖ (wàr neb tro) adv sometime

nerth m nerthow might, power; energy (physics)

nerth y vydnas willpower

nerv f nervow nerve (anatomical)

nervus adj highly strung

nes adj/adv (dhe2) nearer, closer (to) position. motion; here motion; with express negative at all See also in nes

nes’he ‖ (nessa) come near, approach intr

nessa adj nearest; next See Numerals for use as ordinal

nessa v See nes’he

neus col neujen threads (all senses)

nev m nevow heaven Optionally preceded by an

new f newyow trough; sink

newher adv last night, yesterday evening

neyj flight; swim; stroke (manner of swimming)

neyja fly; swim Note phrase bos neyjys = float verb

neyth m neythow nest

neythy nest Pret neythas Note construction neythy y honen = nestle

nia See ania

nith f nithow niece

nôcyon m nôcyons notion

normal adj normal As attributive adj normal precedes or follows its noun

normalyta normality

north adj/m north(ern)

nos f nosow night

noswedhek adj characteristic

nosweth f noswedhyow characteristic

nôta m nôtys note (money, music)

nôten f nôtednow note (sth noted or to be noted)

noth adj bare, naked; nude

notha nakedness, nudity

nôtya note (take note of); announce See also gwyw dhe nôtya

nôtyans note, memorandum; announcement

novel m novellys novel

now interj [well] now

nowedhadow adj renewable

nowedhy renew, renovate; update (sth); innovate Pret nowedhas

nowedhyans m nowedhyansow renewal, renovation; update; innovation

nowedhyansus adj innovative

nowedhys See nowodhow

nown hunger

nownek adj hungry (for lack of food)

nowodhow (nowedhys) pl news

nowyth adj new Also used as adv recently, just

nowyth flàm phr brand new

noy m noyens nephew

noys See tros

nûdel m nûdels noodle

nùk See wàr nùk

nùmber m nùmbers number (countable quantity)

ny’n deur màn phr he couldn’t care less

ny sens ev oy a2 phr he has no time for (dislike, indifference)

ny vern phr it doesn’t matter

nyver m nyverow number (mathematics)

nyvera count (1, 2, 3); enumerate

nyveren f nyverednow numeral

nywl m nywlow fog, mist

nywlek adj foggy, misty



obedyens See obeyans

ober m oberow work (specific), task, job; deed See also in ober

oberwasm oberwesyon ‖ workman

obery accomplish; act, work, operate Pret oberas

oberyans operation (incl surgery)

obeya obey, comply (with)

obeyans (obedyens) obedience, compliance

obma adv here positon or motion Note phrase obma ha dy = here and there

obsessya obsess

obtainya obtain

ocûpya occupy (all senses)

odour m odours smell, scent (individual)

oferen f oferednow mass (Catholic)

offendya offend (all senses)

offens m offencys offence (all senses); opposition

offra See profya

offrydna sacrifice (incl figuratively)

ogas adj/adv (dhe2) near, close (to) position; intimate; almost As adv ogas precedes and qualifies an adj or an adv See also in ogas

ogas dhe2 prep near, close to position

ogas ha phr preceding noun or numeral almost

ogas lowr phr following an expression of specific quantity approximately

ogasty mobile adv almost

ol m olow footprint; trace, vestige; pl type[face]

ola weep, cry

olas m & f hearth, fireplace; home (figuratively)

olcan m olcanow metal

olew olive oil

oll adj/adv all As adj oll precedes a noun / numeral (including any definite article), follows a pronoun.

[oll] a'y anvoth phr reluctantly

[oll] a'y vodh phr gladly

oll an gwella phr best regards

olyfans m olyfansas elephant

Olympek See an Gwariow Olympek

omassaya (ow qwil neppëth) practise (doing sth)

omassayans m omassayansow exercise, practice

omassayva f omassayvaow gym[nasium]

omberthy balance intr Pret omborthas

omblegya bow (take a bow)

omborth balance

omborthus adj ambivalent, equivocal; ambiguous; wobbly

ombredery (a2) ponder, consider Pret ombrederys or ombrederas

ombrofya (rag) apply (for)

ombrofyor m ombrofyoryon candidate

omdava (gans) get in touch (with) Verbal adj omdevys

omdedna withdraw intr; retire; shrink

omden withdrawal; retirement

omdhal (gans) quarrel (with)

omdhevas adj/m orphan

omdhon m/v behaviour; behave Pret omdhug Verbal adj omdhegys

omdhyberth secede; log off

omdhysodha resign

omdhysodhans resignation

omdhysqwedhes v appear (show oneself)

omdhysqwedhyans [kerdh] m parade

omdhysqwîtha See dysqwîtha

omdhyvlâmya (dyharas) apologize

omdhyvlâmyans apology

omdowl wrestling; struggle

omdôwlel wrestle; struggle

omdrailya turn [a]round

omfydhyans m [self-]confidence

omgaregyn m omgaregydnow fossil

omgelgh (kerhydneth) environment

omgelmy (gans) engage (with); log on Pret omgolmas

omgemeres rag phr undertake

omgemeryans responsibility

omgemeryans strothys limited liability

omglôwes feel (in oneself)

omgùssulya (gans) consult, confer, discuss (with)

omladha v no inflection kill oneself, commit suicide

omlath m/v (orth, warbydn) fight [against]

omlavar adj mute

omlêsa spread intr

omoffrydnans self-sacrifice

omrolya (in) join (organization); check in (to flight, hotel)

omry yield, give up Pret omros Note construction omry dhe2 = devote oneself to

omsensy consider, feel (opinion) Pret omsensys

omsettya dhe2 phr commit to (sth, doing sth)

omsettya orth / wàr2 / warbydn oppose (sb, sth); attack (sb, sth)

omsettyans opposition; attack

omsewajya relieve oneself (toilet)

omudnya unite intr Note constructions omudnya gans = identify with, omudnya warbydn = gang up on

omweres cope, manage intr

omweskel collide intr

omwheles overturn

omwolhy wash intr Pret omwolhas

omwovyn ask oneself, wonder This word is often encountered, but govyn orto y honen is better Cornish 

ôn m ên lamb

onest adj decent, proper

only adv only

onora (enora) honour

onour (enour) m onours honour

onyon col onyonen onions

oos m osow age (all senses) See also an Osow Cres

oportûnyst m oportûnystyon opportunist

ôpyn adj/adv open(ly)

ôpyn gwelys phr evident

opynyon m opynyons opinion

or f oryon border, frontier; pl outskirts

organ m organs organ (all senses)

organek adj organic

orkestra m orkestras orchestra

orna See trevna

ors m orsas bear

orth an jowl phr after question word on earth, the devil, the hell Note abbreviated phrases of surprise pandr’an jowl? pywa an jowl? = what the devil?

orth an myns phr proportionate

orthodontythm orthodontydhyon ‖ orthodontist

orthopêdykadj orthopaedic

oryel pyctours m oryels art gallery

osieth ageism

ost m ôstys host; landlord

ostel f ostelyow hotel

ôstya stay (overnight)

ôstyas m ôstysy guest (overnight)

ôstys ervys pl armed forces

ot obma (otobma) phr here is / are

otham (ethom) m othobmow *need See also heb otham

othomva f othomvaow service station, services (on fast road)

otobma See ot obma

our m ourys hour (60 minutes)

outray outrage, atrocity

outrayus adj outrageous, atrocious

overcùmya overcome, beat

ow cortos yn parys phr on standby (for flight etc)

ow kelly phr slow (clock)

ow kemeres pêmons socyal phr on benefits

[ow] melder phr darling

ow tùchya [dhe2] (tùchyng) phr + noun, non-personal pron relating to, concerning, about

owmel See esmal

own (a2) *fear (of), be afraid (of) See also gorra own in, kemeres own

ôwnter m ôwntras uncle

owr gold

owravalm owravallow ‖ orange (fruit)

owrbyskm owrbùscas ‖ goldfish

owrek adj golden

owrlyn ‖ (syjan) silk

oy (optionally pronounced ùy, rarely so written) m oyow egg

oyl oil

oyl dîsel diesel (oil)

oylya oil

oynment m oynmens ointment


pab m pabow pope

pack keyn m packys backpack

packet (fardellyk) m packettys packet

pad m paddys pad

padel f padellow pan

padel dorn f padellow saucepan

padel fria See lecher

padn m padnow cloth, fabric See also bykîny

pain (gloos) m painys pain, ache

paint m paintys paint

paintya paint

pal f palyow spade (incl in cards)

palas dig Verbal adj pelys

paljia paralyse

palm m palmys palm (plant)

palores (bran rudhyk) f paloresow chough

pâls adj abundant

palv f palvow palm (hand)

palvala grope; feel one’s way Verbal adj palvelys

paly (velvet) velvet

palys m palycys palace

pana brow? phr (mar4) what’s the point? (of doing sth)

panel m panellow panel; console (incl for gaming)

panes col panen parsnips

pans m pansow dell

paper m paperyow paper See also pîss paper

paper fos m paperyow wallpapert

paper nowodhow m paperyow newspaper

paper ugans m paperyow twenty pound note Likewise paper deg etc

par See a’n par-ma, a’n par-na

pàr hap See martesen

pàr termyn ... pàr termyn See traweythyow

paradhys (paradîs) paradise

paradîs See paradhys


parashûta ‖ (labmlen ‖) m parashûtys ‖ parachute

park m parcow field (enclosed, also of force); pitch (sport)

park poblek m parcow park (municipal, national)

park caravanowm parcow caravan park

park kerry m parcow car park

parkya park

parra m parrys team

part m partys part (contrasted with another) See also i’n contrary part

parth f parthow side (direction) Note construction a’n barth-ma / barth-na dhe2 = on this / that side of

parth ajy / avês inside / outside

party m partys party (all senses)

Party an Gemynwer the Communist Party

Party an Lavur the Labour Party

Party an Tôrys See Party an Ventênours

Party an Ventênours (Party an Tôrys) the Conservative Party

parujy See parusy

parusy (parujy) prepare; cook Pret parusys

parys adj ready Note construction parys dhe2 = ready / willing to See also ow cortos yn parys, sqwychys dhe barys

paryster readiness

pas m pasow cough

pasbord cardboard

Pask Easter Optionally preceded by an

pâss m pâcys pace, step

passa cough

passêrm passeryow ‖ password

passya pass (incl examination); overtake

pasta pasta

pastel losowek f pastellow allotment (garden)

pasty m pastys pasty, pie

patâta (aval dor, doraval, tatty) m patâtys potato

pâtê pâté

patron m patronyow pattern; model (design)

paw m pawyow paw; claw (crab, lobster)

pawgenf pawgednow ‖ slipper

payon m payonas peacock

pay Pret pês Verbal adj pës Note construction pës dâ (a2, gans) = pleased (with)

pedn m pednow head; end (extremity)

pedn an fordh destination

pedn bloodh m pednow birthday

pedn cales See stowt

pedn pùsorn See bùrdhen

pedn seythen m pednow weekend

pedn- Compounds beginning pedn- may alternatively be spelled pen-

pedncyta f pencytas capital (city) 

pednfordh f penfordhow main road

pednfronf penfrodnow ‖ muzzle (for dog)

pednrêwlf penrêwlys ‖ principle

pednser ‖ m pensery ‖ architect

pedrak adj/m pedrogyon square

pedrevan f pedrevanow lizard

pedry rot; corrupt Pret podras

pegans means (financial)

pegh sin

peha sin

pehador m pehadoryon sinner

pejadow prayer; request

pejy See pesy

pel f pelyow ball; sphere

pel droos football (game)

peldrosyasm peldrosysy ‖ footballer

pelednyk f pelenygow pill, tablet

pell adj far; long (of time) Comp pella (pelha) See also kyns napell, na fella, nans yw pell, napell

pellder distance Also used as adv for a long time

pellen f pelednow ball (of sth); dumpling

pellgôwsel(orth) talk on the phone (with)

pellgowsorm pellgowsoryon ‖ [tele]phone Note also degy-gowsor for stricter pellgowsor hedhon ‘portable telephone’ used by some for ‘mobile phone’

pellwelor See gweder aspias


pelour m pelours fur (for wearing)

pêmont m pêmons payment

penbleth f penblethow puzzlement; quandary, dilemma

Pencast (Sul Gwydn) Pentecost, Whitsun Optionally preceded by an

pencyon m pencyons pension

peneglosf peneglosyow ‖ cathedral

penfentenm penfentydnyow ‖ source (all senses)


pens (puns) m pensow pound (weight, money)

penscol See ûnyversyta See also An Benscol Egerys

penscreform penscreforyon ‖ editor (newspaper, magazine)

pensevyges See prynces

pensevyk See pryns

per col peren pears

Peran St Piran

perfeth (perfÿth) adj perfect

perfethter perfection

perfethyth m perfethydhyon perfectionist

perfÿth See perfeth

perhedna possess; own

perhednak m perhenogyon proprietor; landlord (of tenant)

perhen m perhednyon owner; holder (licence, patent etc)

perl m perlys pearl

perna See prena

persecûtya persecute; victimize

person m persons person, individual; character (in play etc)

personek adj personal

perswâdya persuade, convince Note construction perswâdya nebonen dhe wil / na wrella neppëth = persuade sb to do / not to do sth

perthadow adj bearable

perthy awhêr phr worry

perthy cov phr (a2) remember

perthy danjer phr + verb-noun be reluctant to

perthy dowt phr (a2) fear

perthy envy phr (orth) envy

perthy grêvons phr (orth) bear a grudge (against)

perthy meth See kemeres meth

perthy own See kemeres own

perthy scruth See kemeres scruth

perthyans patience See also fowt perthyans, meur y berthyans

perthyn (longya) dhe2 phr belong to; relate to

perthynas See heb perthynas

perthynek (perthynus, longus) adj (dhe2) relevant (to)

perthynus See perthynek

peryl m perylyow danger, risk

peryllya endanger (sb), risk (sth)

peryllys adj dangerous, risky

peswar torn crossroads

pesy (pejy) pray (for sth); request Present-future pÿs Pret pesys Note constructions pesy rag nebonen = pray for sb, pesy wàr nebonen = pray to sb, pesy orth nebonen (or infixed pron) gwil neppëth or a wil neppëth or pesy may whrella nebonen neppëth = ask sb to do sth, pesy orth nebonen na wrella neppëth = ask sb not to do sth See also my a'th / a'gas pës

pêsya continue Note construction pêsya ow qwil neppëth = continue doing sth See also nefra a bes

pëth m possessions, assets See Grammar Words for pronominal use

petrol petrol

petrolva f petrolvaow filling station

petycyon m petycyons petition

pêwas award See also an pêwas brâs

pib f pîbow pipe (incl for smoking), tube

pîbel f pîbellow pipe, tube

pîben f pîbednow pipe, tube; pl plumbing

pîbow sagh pl bagpipes

piga prick; sting; excite

pigus (entanus) teg phr exciting (positive)

pigvônadj pointed

pil m pîlyow battery

pînavalm pînavallow ‖ pineapple

pîsa v piss, urinate

pîsas piss, urined

piss paper m pîcys piece of paper

pith m pîthow well

pla See a’n pla

plain adj/m plainys plain; square, piazza; plane (geometry) Comp plaina (plainha) or plainya

plain an gwary theatre (open-air)

planet m planettys planet

plans m plansow plant (vegetation)

plansa plant Verbal adj plynsys

plâss m plâcyow place (incl at table); mansion

plaster plaster

plastyfia laminate (document etc)

plastyk adj/m plastygow plastic

plat adj flat Comp platta

plât m plâtyow plate

platten f platednow disk (computer, recording)

plattya flatten; crouch

plebmyk See dhe blebmyk

pleg m plegow bend; fold

plegadow adj/m agreeable (sb, sth); acceptable (sth); desire, inclination See also dh’y blegadow

plegel f plegellow folder

plegya bend; fold Note construction bos plegys dhe2 = be inclined to

plegya dhe See plêsya See also mar pleg

plegya tâl phr frown

plenta See plenty

plenty (plenta) m (a2) plenty (of), enough

plesont adj pleasant, nice

plesour m plesours pleasure

plestryn m plestrydnow plaster (for minor cut)

plêsya (plegya dhe2) please

plethen f plethednow pigtail, dreadlock; string (onions etc)

plethy braid, plait Pret plethas

plit situation

plobm lead (metal)

plobmyor (gweythor plobm) m plomyoryon plumber

plos adj plosyon dirty

plos y davas phr foul-mouthed

plosegy dirty; get dirty Pret plosegas

plot m plottys plot (of story)

plùmen f plùmednow plum

pluv col pluven feathers; singulative also used for pen

pluvak f pluvogow cushion, pillow

pluven belvleynf pluvednow pelvleyn ‖ ballpoint [pen]

pluven blobm f pluvednow plobm pencil

pluw f pluwyow parish

plynchya flinch; blink; wince

pobas bake Pret pebys Verbal adj pebys

pobel f & col poblow people (as collective = persons) See also an bobel, an bobel vian

poblans m poblansow population

poblegeth (repùblyk) m poblegedhow republic

poblegy publicize Pret poblegas

poblegyans publicity

poblek adj public

pock m pockyow push; poke, prod

pocket m pockettys pocket

pockya push; poke, prod

podcastm podcastys ‖ podcast

poder adj rotten

poder dans tooth decay

podradow adj perishable (food)

podrak adj podrogyon decayed; corrupt

podrethes rot, decay; corruption

podyk m podygow jug (small); mug (beer)

poll m pollow pool; pit (hollow)

poll atal m pollow rubbish dump

poll neyja m pollow swimming pool

poll pry m pollow clay pit

pollat m polatys fellow, chap, guy

pollgor See kessedhek

pols pulse, heartbeat; moment (duration, not point in time)

pols bian phr a little while; a little way (distance)

pols dâ (polta) phr quite a while; quite a way (distance)

polsor m polsoryon pendulum

polta See pols dâ

polter powder

polycy m polycys policy (all senses)

polyshya polish

polytygieth politics

polytygor m polytygoryon politician

polytyk adj political; shrewd

polytyk-kewaradj politically correct

pompyon m pompyons pumpkin

pompyon dowr m pompyons watermelon

pompyon hir m pompyons marrow (vegetable)

pompyon wheg m pompyons melon

pompyonyk m pompyonygow courgette

pons m ponsow bridge

pons cregys m ponsow suspension bridge

pons kerdh m ponsow footbridge

ponsfordhf ponsfordhow ‖ viaduct

ponya run (animate subject) Imperative poon

poos adj/adv/m posow heavy; serious (bad); deep(ly) (sleep); weight Also used idiomatically for pound (weight) Comp pôssa See also meur y boos

pooslevm pooslevow ‖ stress, emphasis

pooslevastress, emphasize

popet m popettys doll; puppet

popty pyng See corrdodnor

popynjay m popynjays parrot

pop-ÿscol pop-ÿsen ‖ popcorn

pòr2 adv very Precedes its adj

poran adv exactly; with expressions of motion straight, directly

porhel m porhelly pig

pornografek adj pornographic

porpos purpose, intention

porpos m porpesow plaice

porposya (intendya) intend Note construction bos porposys dhe wil neppëth = intend to do sth

porrês See res 

pors m porsys purse

portal m portalys porch

porth m porthow gateway, doorway; harbour, port; cove

portreya portray

portreyans m portreyansow portrayal; portrait; profile (public)

portwinport (drink)

pory graze; browse (book, shop, internet etc) Verbal adj porys but no other inflection

posa (wàr2, warbydn) lean (against)

posnya poison

possybyl adj possible

possybylta m possybyltas possibility

post m postow post (all senses)

postcôdm postcôdys ‖ postcode

postya post

posytyf adj positive See also VID-posytyf

pot m pottow pot

pôt m pôtow kick

pot tê m pottow teapot

pôtya kick

pow m powyow country, land (geographical); countryside

power power (physics, politics)

powes m/v rest; pause; interval (performance) See also gwil powes

powes wàr2 phr depend on

pows f powsyow dress; robe

pows nos f powsyow nightie

poynt m poyntys point (all senses); as adv with express negative at all See also in poynt dâ

poynt a skians m poyntys maxim, proverb

poyntya point

poyson m poysons poison

practys m practycyow practice (all senses)

pragmatek adj pragmatic

prais See gormola

praisya (gormel) praise

pralla See spralla

pràm See caryach baby

pras m prasow meadow

prat m prattys trick; stunt

preder m prederow thought; worry See also kemeres preder

prederus adj thoughtful; worried

predery think Pret prederys or prederas

predn m prednyer wood; bar

pregoth (progeth) m/v sermon; preach

prena (perna) buy, purchase

prenas m prenasow buy, purchase

prenassa v no inflection shop

prenor m prenoryon buyer, purchaser

prentys m prentycys apprentice, trainee

prës m prejyow time (specific, actual) See also i’n gwella prës, i’n gwetha prës Note construction prës yw + verb-noun = it is time to

prës [boos] m prejyow meal

prës ly See ly

presens presence

present attributive adj present Precedes its noun See also a’n present termyn, rag an present termyn

presentya present

presentyans presentation

prest adv all the time

prestya lend (money)

prestyans loan (money)

presydent m presydens president

pretendya claim

prëv m preves (prevyon) creepy-crawly; insect (loosely)

prëv del m preves caterpillar

prevy prove; test, try out Pret provas

prevyans See heb prevyans

prias m & f priosow spouse

pris m prîsyow prize; price See also a bris

problem m problemow problem (all senses)

proces (argerth) process, procedure

professour m professours professor

profet (profus) m profettys prophet

profus See profet

profya (offra) offer, bid; propose, suggest

profyans m profyansow offer, bid; proposal, suggestion; try (rugby)

profyt profit

progeth See pregoth

project (ragdres) m projectow project

promys (dedhewadow) m promyssyow promise

promyssya (dedhewy) promise

pronter See prownter

pros (yêth plain) prose

Protestant adj/m Protestans Protestant

protestya protest; demonstrate (political)

protestyans protest; demonstration (political)

prov m provyon proof; test

prov menystry MOT

provia provide, supply Note construction provia neppëth dhe nebonen = supply sb with sth

provians supply; supplies

provior m provioryon provider, supplier

provôkya provoke

prow advantage Note that a single advantage is poynt a brow See also a brow

prownter (pronter) m prontyryon priest

prowt adj (a2) proud (of) (positive, negative)

pry clay

pry gwydn china clay

pryck point (compass); degree (circle)

prydydhieth poetry

prydyth m prydydhyon poet

prÿjweyth moment (point in time)

prynces (pensevyges ‖) f pryncesow princess

pryns (pensevyk ‖) m pryncys prince

prynt m pryntys print

pryntya print

pryntyor m pryntyoryon printer

prysner m prysners prisoner

pryson m prysons prison

prysonya imprison

pryva (pryveth) adj private; confidential

pryvedhyow See attêsva

pryveth See pryva

pryvetter privacy; confidentiality

pùb eur [oll] See pùpprës

pùb termyn See pùpprës

pùb wàr y dorn phr in turn

puber pepper

pubryn m pubrydnow bell pepper

pùdyn m pùdyns pudding

pùmp m pùmpys pump

pùmpya pump

puns See pens

pùnyshment m pùnyshmentys punishment

pùnyshya punish

pùpprës ‖ (pùb eur [oll], pùb termyn) adv always

pùptra See dres pùptra, wosa pùptra See Grammar Words for pronominal use

pur adj pure; sheer (intensifying) Comp purra (purha)

purheor m purheoryon purifier; sanitizer

pùrpur See glasrudh

pùrrya purr

pùscador m pùscadoryon (pùscadors) fisherman

pùsorn m pùsernow bundle (tied together)

py eur yw? phr what’s the time?

pyanô m pyanôs piano

pycher m pychers pitcher, jug (large)

pyckel m pyckels pickle

pyckla pickle

pyctour m pyctours picture; painting

pydn m pydnys pin

pydna pin

pyjâmas pl pyjamas

pykern m pykernow cone (all senses)

pyllen f pylednow fringe; frayed cloth, rag

pyncel m pyncels brush (artist’s); pencil (especially for make-up); marker pen

pynchya pinch

pynk See gwydnrudh

pynta m pyntys pint

pÿs col pysen peas

pysk m pùscas fish See also an Pùscas

pyskessa v no inflection fish

pyskva f pyskvaow aquarium; fish farm

pystyga injure

pystyk m pystygow injury; stitch (in side)

pyt m pyttys pit

pyta (pyteth) pity, compassion See also kemeres pyta orth

pyteth See pyta

pyth adj mean, stingy

pythneth meanness, stinginess

pytsa m pytsas pizza

pyxel m pyxellyow pixel



qwalyta m qwalytas quality (all senses)

qwartron m qwartronys district; direction See Numerals for use as fraction

qwestyon m qwestyons (qwestyonow) question

qwit adv completely

qworùm m qwora quorum

qwylkyn m qwylkydnow frog

qwyz m qwyzys quiz


rabmen See growyn

racan m racanow rake

rach care, attention

radn f radnow part; section See Grammar Words for pronominal use See also kemeres radn

radna divide; share; deal (cards) Verbal adj rydnys

radnlesm ranlesow ‖ commission (fee)

radnriv ‖ (fracsyon) f ranrîvyow ‖ fraction

radnyêthf ranyêthow ‖ dialect

radycal adj/m radycals radical As attributive adj radycal precedes or follows its noun

radyô m radyôs radio

rag See in rag, wàr rag See Grammar Words for prepositional use

rag an present termyn phr for now, for the time being

rag dowt See dowt

rag exampyl (r.e.) phr for example (e.g.)

rag hedna phr therefore

rag kerensa prep for the sake of

rag tro phr temporary, temporarily, provisional(ly)

ragdres See project

ragêr m rageryow preposition

ragerhy reserve, book Pret ragerhys

rag’hanow m rag’henwyn pronoun

raglef See vôta

raglen f raglednow overall

ragleva See vôtya

ragpren subscription

ragprena subscribe to (newspaper, magazine etc)

ragprena eseleth in phr subscribe to (association, club)

ragresor m ragresoryon pioneer

ragvrehel f ragvrehellow cuff

ragvreus f ragvreusow prejudice

randirm randiryow ‖ region, district

randirekadj regional

ranjy m ranjiow ‖ flat, apartment

ras See meur ras

rastel f rastelly grill (cooking)

rastella grill

r.e. See rag exampyl

re adv/quant too; too much As adv re precedes its adj

reacsyon reaction (to situation)

realeth reality

rebellya rebel

rebellyans rebellion

recepcyon (degemerva) reception (front desk)

recêva (recêvya) receive

recêvya See recêva

recêvys avell phr qualified as (professionally)

receyt m receytys recipe

recken m recknys bill, invoice

reckenvaf reckenvaow ‖ checkout (supermarket etc)

reckna reckon, calculate See also heb reckna

reckna ogas lowr phr estimate

reckna termyn phr + noun time (sth)

recknans reckoning, calculation

recknel f recknellow calculator (device, app)

record m recordys record (all senses)

recordya record; save (computing)

recordyans m recordyansow recording

reden col redenen bracken, ferns

redya read

redyk m redygow radish

referendùm (gwerynvôta ‖) m referenda referendum

regardya bear in mind

rejyster m reyjsters register (language)

remainya stay, remain

remembra remember

remenat See remnant

remnant (remenat) m remnans (remenadow) remainder, rest; pl remains

remôcyon removal (to new address); promotion (career)

remôvya (remuvya) remove

remuvya See remôvya

rencas m rencasow class (social)

rencas lavur working class

rendra v + adj render, make

renk m renkyow rank

renky snore; snort; croak; gurgle; rasp Pret roncas

rent m rentys revenue; rent; interest (on loan or deposit)

rentya See gobrena

repentons repentance

repentya repent

reportyor m reportyoryon reporter

representya represent

repùblyk See poblegeth

reqwîrya require

res f rêsyow row; sequence

res See bos res [porrês] Note res can also be a present tense verb (imperfect tense resa) as in the relative clause a res = [which is] necessary / essential

res adro roundabout (fairground); carousel (baggage)

res yw phr + infinitive construction he must (have) (inference) Use res o in past narrative

res yw alowa / avowa phr admittedly

rescous rescue

resegva f resegvaow race (contest); career

resegva bêwnans f resegvaow curriculum vitae

resek run (inanimate subject)

rêson m rêsons (rag) reason (all senses) (for) See also dre rêson

rêsonek adj rational

rêsonus adj reasonable

resor m resoryon courier; cursor

respect See revrons

rester f restry set-up, scheme (colour etc)

restorya restore; reinstate

restry arrange (in tidy order) Pret restras

restryn m restrydnow file (document, incl computing)

reun m reunas seal (animal)

rev f revow oar, paddle; shovel

revrons (respect) respect See also gwil revrons dhe2

revya row, paddle

rew frost, ice

rew See in udn rew

reward (gweryson, weryson) reward

rewardya reward

rewdhehen See dehen rew

rewer See rewgyst

rewgyst ‖ (rewer) f rewgystyow ‖ freezer

rewjy m rewjiow ‖ terraced house

rêwl f rêwlys rule; control

rêwl boos f rêwlys diet

rêwlya rule, regulate

rêwlyans regulation

rêwlyth m rêwlydhyon regulator

rewy freeze Pret rewas Note rewys = icy

reydh sex, gender

reydhek adj sexual

rial adj royal; splendid, excellent As attributive adj rial precedes or follows its noun

rias m riesy donor

rim m rîmyow rhyme

riss rice

rîvednek adj/f rîvenegow digital; keypad

rîvbost ‖ (ebost) m rîvbostow ‖ email

ro m royow gift, present, donation

robbya rob

robbyor v robbyoryon robber

robot m robottys robot

rocket (fusen) m rockettys rocket

rol m rôlys role

rol f rolyow roll (all senses); list

rol cana f rolyow playlist

rol vytel f rolyow menu (food)

rolbrenm rolbrednyer ‖ roller; reel

rolya roll

rom m rômys room (≠ space)

rom esedha m rômys sitting room

rom kydnyow m rômys dining room

rom showya m rômys showroom

rom studhya (studhva) m rômys study (room)

Roman adj/m Romans Roman

romantek adj romantic

rônd See rownd

ronk snore; snort; croak; gurgle; rasp Also used as adj with same sense range

roos f rosow net

roosweythm roosweythow ‖ network

ros f rosow wheel

ros col rosen roses

ros mogh col rosen [corn] poppies

roskys f roskyjyow roller skate

rôstya roast

rôsva f rosvaow avenue; drive (in front of house)

rôsya stroll; surf (web)

roweth prestige

rownd (rônd) adj/m rowndys round Comp rownd’ha (rônd’ha)

rowter m rowteryow router (broadband etc)

rùber rubber (material)

rudh adj red

rudhak m rudhogas robin

rudhvelenadj orange (colour)

rudhya blush

rùgby rugby

rugla rattle, jangle

rusk col rusken rind; bark (tree)

rùstla rustle (sound)

rûth f rûthow crowd

rùttya rub

ry (dhe2) give (to) Pret ros Imperatives ro (roy), rewgh Verbal adj rës

ry an vrodn dhe2 (brodna) phr breastfeed

ry colon dhe2 (spyrysegy) phr encourage (sb)

ry cubmyas rag phr permit, allow (sth)

ryban m rybanys ribbon

rybfordhf rybfordhow ‖ slip road

rych adj rich; expressive (language) Comp rycha

rych y awen phr creative

rychys See rychyth

rychyth (rychys) wealth, riches

rygol groove; rut

rythym rhythm

ryver m ryvers river


sacrys adj sacred

sad adj serious, grave Comp sad’ha

Sadorn See de Sadorn Also means Saturn

sagh m seghyer bag

sagh cùsca m seghyer sleeping bag

sagh keyn m seghyer rucksack 

salad m saladys salad

salad cavach coleslaw

salow adj safe and sound Comp salwa or moy salow

salujy greet Pret salujas

sans adj/m sens holy; saint

sant m sandys course (meal)

sant melen Eyndek See cùrry

sant melys m sandys dessert

sarcastyk adj sarcastic

sarchya search for

sarf See serpont


sav See a’y sav

savla m savleow position; site

savla bùss m savleow bus stop

saw adj safe Comp sawa; prep + noun, pron (independent if personal) except See Grammar Words for use as conj

sawder safety

sawen f sawenyow cleft (in cliff)

sawor (saworen) m saworyow smell, fragrance; flavour Note construction yma sawor + noun / adj wàr = smell (have a particular smell); taste (have a particular taste)

sawor Eyndek chutney

saworek adj fragrant; savoury (as opposed to sweet); tasty

saworen See sawor

sawory smell (sth); taste (sth) Verbal adj saworys but no other inflection

sawya save, rescue; recover (from illness)

saya See assaya

scaffotys pl scaffolding


scafhësy golon phr relieved

scala m scalys bowl (shallow)

scàm m scamow scam

scant adj/adv scarce; + optional negative hardly, scarcely, barely Comp scanta

scant col scanten scales (fish, reptile)

scantlyn criterion, criteria; template

scanya scan (with device)

scanyans ughsonultrasound scan

scanyor m scanyoryon scanner

scappya get away, escape intr

scat See sqwat

scath f scathow boat

scath sawder f scathow lifeboat

scav adj light (weight); slight; nimble; swift Comp scaffa

scavel f scavellow stool; bench

scavel an gow gossip

scavel cronak f scavellow mushroom

scent m scentys scent, perfume

sciens m sciencys science

sciensek adj scientific

sciensyth m sciensydhyon scientist

sclander slander; scandal

sclandrus adj slanderous; scandalous

scobmyn m scobmow chip (chocolate, device)

scochfordhf scochfordhow ‖ alley[way]

scodhya support

scodhya wàr2 phr rely on Note phrase dâ dhe scodhya warnodho = reliable

scodhyans support

scodhyor m scodhyoryon supporter

scol f scolyow school

scol elvednek f scolyow primary school

scol nessa f scolyow secondary school Contrast an nessa scol = the nearest school

scol vêthryn f scolyow mêthryn nursery school

scolheygus adj scholarly

scolor f scoloryon pupil (school)

scon (yn scon) adv soon Comp scona (sconha)

scons col sconsen scones

sconya reject, refuse Note construction sconya dhe nebonen gwil neppëth = forbid sb doing sth

scoodh f scodhow shoulder

scoodhlen See whytel

scoos m scojow shield; protection See also in dadn scoos

scooskem scooskeow ‖ crash barrier

scor m scôrys score; rating

scoren f scorednow branch

scornya scorn; satirize

scorpyon See an Scorpyon

scot bill (in restaurant etc)

scovarn f scovornow ear

scovarnak m scovarnogyon hare

scovarnygow pl earphones, earbuds

scovva f scovvaow cubicle

scrambla scramble (eggs, message)

screfa (scrifa) m/writing; write Imperative scrif

screfor m screforyon writer

screw (kenter tro) m screwys screw

scrif m scrîvyow (scrifow) document; work (of author)

scrifa See screfa

scrij m scrîjow shriek, scream

scrîja shriek, scream

scrin f scrînyow screen (all senses); shrine

scriven f scrivednow document

scrolya scroll

scruth m scruthow horror, shock See also gorra scruth in, kemeres scruth

scruthus adj horrible, shocking

scrydel f scrydellow poster

scryp (jypser) m scryppys satchel; briefcase

scrypt m scryptys script (play, film etc)

scryvynyas m scryvynysy secretary

scubel f scubellow broom

scubel sugna f scubellow vacuum cleaner

scubel wolhy (mop) f scubellow mop

scubya (brossya, brùshya) brush, sweep

scubylen (brùsh) f scubylednow brush

scubylen dens f scubylednow toothbrush

scudel f scudellow dish (all senses)

scùllya spill; squander, waste

scùllyak adj/m scùllyogyon wasteful; extravagant; spendthrift

scùllyans spill[age]; waste

scûter m scûters scooter

seban soap

secùnd m secùnds second (time) See Numerals for use as ordinal

sedha See esedha

sedhek brusy m sedhegyon tribunal

sedhy sink, submerge; set (sun) Pret sedhas

sëgh adj dry Comp seha

seha dry

sehes thirst; *be thirsty

sel manylyon f sêlyow database

selder cellar(s)

sellys parys phr ready salted

selsyk col selsygen sausages

selvenm selveyn ‖ foundation; basis

selvenegorm selvenegoryon ‖ fundamentalist

selvenekadj fundamental, basic

selwel (sylwel) save

sêlya seal (all senses)

semlant m appearance (look)

sêmly adj handsome, attractive

sempel adj simple Comp sempla


seneth m senedhow parliament

sens m sencys sense (≠ meaning) See also gwil sens

sens a gemusureth sense of proportion

sens a sprall frustration (emotion)

sensor m sensoryon holder; stand (coats, hats, music)

sensor carg m sensoryon shipping container

sensor manegow m sensoryon glove compartment

sensy hold; keep; detain; consider (opinion) Pret sensys Note construction bos sensys dhe2 = be grateful to

sensy dh’y vrës concentrate on (sth)

sensytyf adj sensitive

sensytyvyta sensitivity

seny sound; ring (bell); play (music, musical instrument) Pret sonas

sera See syra

serpont (sarf) m serpons snake

serry anger; get angry Pret sorras Note serrys (engrys) = angry

serth adj rigid, upright; steep Comp sertha

serus See creftus

servont m servons servant

servya serve

servyas m servysy server

servyour m servyours tray

servys m servycyow service (all senses)

Servys Kenedhlek Yêhes the National Health Service (NHS)

sêson m sêsons season See also a’n sêson

sêsya seize

set m settys set (of sth)

seth m sethow jar

seth f sethow arrow

sethor m sethoryon remote [control] (television etc) See also an Sethor

settya set, lay, place See also settya [wor’gobren]

settya dëdh phr make an appointment

settya moos phr lay the table

settya orth / warbydn phr oppose

settya [wor'gobren] phr (dhe2) hire, rent, let (to sb)

seul See gwewen

sevel stand; stop (stand still) Pret sevys or savas Imperative sav Verbal adj sevys = arisen (not stood / standing)

sevel in bàn phr stand up, get up (incl from bed)

sevel orth phr refrain from

sevel orth aswon phr ignore

sevur adj severe (sb)

sevureth See in sevureth

seweny See soweny

sewt m sewtys suit; colour (of garment)

sewt resegva m sewtys tracksuit

sewt stanch m sewtys wetsuit, drysuit

sewya follow (all senses)

sewyans m sewyansow consequence; result, outcome

sexieth sexism

seythen f seythednow week See also pedn seythen

shafta m shaftys shaft (in ground)

shakya shake

sham shame

shampên champagne

shampû shampoo

shâmya shame, humiliate

shanel an strêt m shanellow gutter (street)

shâp m shâpys shape

shâpya shape

shara m sharys share, portion; contribution

sharca See morvleydh

sherp adj sharp (incl tone of voice)

sherys sherry

shînya See spladna

Shîyek adj Shia

shoppa (gwerthjy) m shoppys shop

shora m shorys attack (heart etc); fit (epilepsy)

show m showys show (entertainment or to impress)

showr (cals) a2 quant a lot of

shùgra sugar

shùgra leth lactose

shyndya damage, harm (sb, sth)

sia hum, buzz

sians whim

siansus adj temperamental (sb); arbitrary (sth)

sîcologyl adj psychological

Sîkyas m Sîkysy Sikh

sin m sînys sign See also gwil sin

sîna sign (all senses)

sînans signature

sîra See tas

sîra dâ m sîrys father-in-law

sîra wydn m sîrys gwydn grandfather

skech m skechys sketch (playlet)

skentyl adj intelligent; clever, smart (incl device, motorway)

sketh m skethow strip

skethry chop (wood) Verbal adj skethrys but no other inflection

skethryk m skethrygow splinter

skeul f skeulyow ladder; scale (music)

skeul diank f skeulyow fire escape

skeus m skeusow (a2) shadow, shade; suspicion (of); *be suspicious (of)

skeus lugarn m skeusow lampshade

skeusednor m skeusenoryon photographer

skeusek adj shady; suspicious; spooky

skeusen (fôtô[graf ‖]) f skeusednow photo[graph] See also honen-skeusen

skeusenieth (fôtôgrafieth ‖) photography

skevens pl lungs

skew wyns f skewyow gwyns windscreen

skia m/v no inflection ski(ing)

skians m skiansow knowledge, wisdom; intellect See also poynt a skians

skiansek adj/m skiansegyon knowledgeable, wise; intellectual

skîtel f skîtellow syringe

skîtya squirt; inject

skîtyans squirt; injection

sky m skiow ski

skyber f skyberyow barn

skydnya (dhywar2) descend, go down (from); dismount; get off (vehicle)

skyjyow See eskys

skyla (rag) reason (for)

skynen f skynednow earring

sley adj clever, skilful Comp sleya (sleyha)

slynk adj/m slippery; slide

slynkresekskate (on ice)

slynkva f slynkvaow slipway

slynkya slide

slyppya slip; skid

snell adv quickly

snod m snôdys tape (for specific purpose: measuring, police, audio, video)

snod clos m snôdys cassette

snûker snooker

so whath See bytegyns

socour tròm first aid

socyal (cowethasek) adj social

socyalyth m socyalydhyon socialist

sodhak m sodhogyon officer; official

sodhogyl adj official See also gre sodhogyl

sodhva f sodhvaow office (place)

sodhva an post (lytherjy ‖, lytherva) f sodhvaow post office

sodyn adj sudden

sôfa See gwely dëdh

sogh adj blunt Comp soha

solabrës adv already

solempna adj solemn

solempnyta (ceremony) ceremony

soler m soleryow loft; landing; gallery; platform (for workmen, also ICT)

solyd adj/m solydow solid

sompêr adj peerless, unrivalled

son (sownd) m sonyow sound

soodh f sodhow office, post, position, job

soper supper

soposya suppose

sordya arouse; initiate; trigger; start, boot (computer)

sordya marth in phr amaze

sorn m sernow nook

sorr anger

sorr ewn indignaton

sort m sortas hedgehog

sort m sortow sort, kind, variety

sos guy(s) addressing one or more people

sosten food (especially as commodity)

sostenadow adj sustainable

sotel adj crafty (sb); subtle (sth)

soth adj/m south(ern)

soudor m soudoryon soldier

sowcer m sowcers saucer

sowen adj thriving, prosperous

sowena (sowenyans) prosperity; success

soweny (seweny) prosper; succeed Pret sowenas

sowenyans See sowena

sowman m sowmans salmon

sowndya sound (all senses)

sows sauce

sows cogh tomato sauce

Sowsnek adj English As masculine noun = the English language, optionally preceded by an

sowthan bewilderment, surprise

sowthanas bewilder, surprise Verbal adj sowthenys

spagetty spaghettitevy

spal m spalyow fine (penalty)

spâss m spâcys space, room; opportunity

specyal (especyal) adj/adv special; especially As attributive adj specyal precedes or follows its noun

specyfyk adj specific

specymen m specymens specimen

spêda success

spêdya [in] succeed (in) Note construction spêdya dhe wil neppëth = succeed in doing sth

spellya spell

spellyans spelling

spêna spend (money, time, effort); use up, exhaust Verbal adj spênys = exhausted (incl very tired) See also còst spênys

spencer m spencers dispenser

spencer mona m spencers cash machine, ATM

sperys See spyrys

spessly adv especially

spîcek adj spicy, hot

spit spite, malice

spîtys adj spiteful, malicious

spladn adj bright (light); splendid (incl figuratively) Comp spladna (spladnha)

spladna (shînya) shine intr

splat m splattys area (piece of land)

spong See sponj

sponj (spong) m sponjow sponge (incl cake)

sponken squash (game)

sport sport; fun

spot a2 quant a bit of (especially sth intangible)

spralla (pralla) hamper; frustrate Verbal adj sprallys = frustrated (incl emotion) See also sens a sprall

sprusek adj nuclear

spynach spinach

spyrys (sperys) m spyryjyon spirit See also an Spyrys Sans

spyrysegy See ry colon dhe

spÿs See a verr spÿs

sqward (sqwerd) m sqwardyow tear (torn)

sqwardya (sqwerdya) tear, rip Verbal adj sqwardys or sqwerdys

sqwat (scat) adv/m sqwattow with a bang; blow; break

sqwattya hit, swat; break Verbal adj sqwattys used also for abandoned, derelict (especially of a mine)

sqwerd See sqward

sqwerdya See sqwardya

sqwith adj tired; bored Comp sqwitha

sqwîtha tire; bore

sqwîthus adj tiring; boring

sqwychel f sqwychellow switch (device)

sqwychya mes / rag phr switch off / on

sqwychys dhe barys phr on standby (device)

stâbel m stâblys (stâblyow) stable

stacyon m stacyons station (hygiene, police, radio etc)

stadyùm m stadya stadium

stag adj fixed Note phrase mos yn stag = get stuck

staga (dhe2) attach (to) Verbal adj stagys

stagell f stagellow attachment; appendix (document)

stair (gris) m stairys stair

stalla m stallys stall (market, stable); stand (exhibition)

stamp m stampys stamp (incl postage) 

stampdollstamp duty

stampya stamp

stanch adj watertight; waterproof

standard adj/m standardys standard

stankya stamp (with foot) Verbal adj usually stankyes

stap m stappys step; stage (in process)

starnedhek (strothurek) adj structural

starneth (strothur) m starnedhow structure

stât m stâtys state (all senses); estate

stauns m stauncys stance, attitude

stêk m stêkys steak

stella See whath

sten tin

stenor m stenoryon tinner

ster col steren stars (incl celebrities)

steus f steusow series; range; course (medication, treatment)

stêvya rush, dash; swoop

stock m stockys stock (goods); block; pl stocks (finance, punishment)

stoff stuff (all senses)

stoffya stuff; stock (cupboard etc); cram (for examination)

stoffyas m stoffyasow stuffing

stoppya stop [up]; cut off (utility); stop (bus, train) Note construction stoppya dhe nebonen gwil neppëth = stop sb doing sth

stordy adj obstinate, dogged, diehard

story See istory

stowt (pedn cales) adj stubborn, bolshy

strait adj strict; straight (sexuality)

stranj (astranj) adj strange

stray See wàr stray

strayl m straylyow mat

straylyk m straylygow place mat; beer mat

strech delay

strechya stretch [out]; delay

strêmya stream (on-line)

strêt m strêtys street

strew m strewyow sneeze

strewy sneeze Pret strewas

strif strife, squabble

strîfwerthf strîfwerthow ‖ auction 

strîvya (gans, warbydn) strive, struggle Note constructions strîvya dhe wil neppëth = strive to do sth, gwil neppëth in udn strîvya = struggle to do sth

strîvyans effort

strocas m strocosow blow, stroke (incl medical)

stroll mess; litter

strollgystf strollgystyow ‖ litter bin

stroth adj/m strothow tight; strict; brace (teeth) Comp strotha

strotha tighten; squeeze; restrict

strothur See starneth

strothurek See starnedhek

strus m strusyow ostrich

stubm m stubmow bend, curve; position (of body)

stubma bend; distort Note construction bos stubmys dhe wil neppëth = tend to do sth

studh m studhyow condition, state

studhva See rom studhya

studhya study

studhyans study, investigation

studhyor m studhyoryon student (often at university, college)

styf f styfyow jet

styfya spray

styr m styryow meaning

styrya explain (meaning of sth); mean (inanimate subject) See also hèn yw dhe styrya

sùbmen See sùm

sùffra suffer

sùgan juice

sugna suck

sùgnek adj juicy

Sul See de Sul

Sul Gwydn See Pencast

sùm (sùbmen) m sùmys sum, amount (figure)

sùmya sum up

Sùny adj Sunni

sur adj sure Comp surra (surha)



Surheans Kenedhlek National Insurance

swàn m swàns swan

swaysya swing [about], brandish

sygen f sygednow tag

sygera seep, ooze; smoulder; idle (engine)

syght sight (seeing, sth seen) Note construction yma syght + noun / adj wàr = look (have a particular look)

syjan See owrlyn

sylaben f sylabednow syllable

sylly f sylias eel

sylwel See selwel

sym m symas monkey

syra (sera) m syrys sir Clipped to Syr when used as title before a name

syrop m syropys syrup

sythel f sythlow strainer; filter

sythla strain; filter

syvy col syvien strawberries


tâbel m tâblys table (all senses); pl backgammon

tabm m/quant tybmyn [a2] (a) bit, piece (of)

tabm dainty m tybmyn delicacy (to eat)

tabm ha tabm phr gradual(ly), bit by bit

tabour m tabours drum (percussion)

tackya dêwla phr clap (hands)

taclow See tra

taga choke, suffocate, strangle; clog Verbal adj tegys

tâl m tâlyow forehead, brow (incl hill)

taladow adj (dhe2) payable (to) (incl cheque)

tâlenepm tâlenebow ‖ façade

talent m talens talent

talkya (kestalkya, kescôwsel) talk (gans) (conversation, dialogue)

talveja value (all senses)

tâlyk m tâlygow attic

tampon m tampons tampon

tan m tanow fire Note construction gans tan = on fire See also gorra tan in, kemeres tan

tan See kemeres

tanbeledna ‖ bomb

tanbellenf tanbelednow ‖ bomb

tanbrenm tanbrednyer ‖ match (for flame)

tanjys (tansys) blaze; bonfire

tank m tancow (all senses)

tanow adj thin; sparse Comp tanwa or moy tanow

tanow creft pl fireworks

tanow’hethin [out]

tansys See tanjys

tanya start (engine)

tap m tappys tap (for water)

taran v tarednow thunder[bolt]

tardar m terder drill

tardh m tardhow burst; explosion; eruption

tardha burst, explode; erupt Verbal adj tardhys

tardra drill

taredna thunder; boom, roar

tarosvan illusion; ghost

tarosvanus adj illusory; ghostly

tarow m terewy bull See also an Tarow

tart m tartys tart

tas (sîra) m tasow father

tasek m tasygyon patron

tastya v taste

Tasyk Daddy

tatty See patâta

taunt adj cheeky; insolent

tava touch, feel (by touching) Verbal adj tevys

tavas m tavosow tongue; language

tavasa scold

tavaseth m tavasedhow idiom

tavern m tavernyow pub

tavethly See darlêsa

tavol Tùrky See trenkles

taw silence

tawesek adj silent

taxy m taxiow taxi


tê losowek herbal tea

tebel-1(2) pref evil, wicked

tebel-dyghtyaabuse Verbal adj tebel-dyghtys ‖ but no other inflection

teby See tyby

tecken f teckednow moment (duration, not point in time)

tecter beauty

tedha melt; thaw

tedn m tednow pull, tug; shot

tedna pull, tug; draw (incl bladed weapon, not pictures); withdraw (money); shoot (gun) intr Note construction bos tednys dhe wil neppëth = tend to do sth

tedna an dowr phr flush [the toilet]

tedna dhyworth See kemeres dhyworth

teg adj/adv beautiful, lovely, pretty; nice; fair (incl play); quite (completely) Comp tecka As adv teg follows its adj

tegen f tegednow ornament, trinket

teknegor m teknegoryon technician

teknegyl adj technical

teknologieth technology

teknyk m teknygow technique

teller See tyller

tempel See templa

templa (tempel) m templys temple

tempra v moderate Verbal adj temprys = moderate adj

temptacyon m temptacyons temptation

temptya tempt

tenewen m tenwednow flank, side

tenkys fate

tennva tension; strain, stress Pre-occluded dn is rare

tent (tylda) m tentys tent

tenys tennis

terghya hack (computer)

termyn m termynyow time (concept, period, past or future, right time to do sth); term (academic) See also a’n present termyn, an termyn a dheu, an termyn eus passys, i’n kettermyn, i’n mên-termyn, pàr termyn ... pàr termyn, pùb termyn, rag an present termyn

terneyja See treneyja

ternosvyttyn phr tomorrow morning Compare hedhyw myttyn = this morning (2nd state vyttyn should not be generalized to other expressions)

terras m terracys terrace (for sitting)

terry break Pret torras

terry an jëdh dawn

terstuth crisis

teryas m terysy extremist

tesak adj sultry

tesen f tesednow cake

tesen gales f tesednow cales biscuit (sweet)

Test Jehôva m Testyon Jehova’s Witness

testen f testednow subject, topic

testscrifm testscrîvyow ‖ certificate

tesyans bÿs-efanglobal warming

tethen f tethednow nipple; dummy (for baby)

tevy grow Pret tevys

tevyans growth; tumour

tevysak adj/m tevysogyon adult

tew adj thick; dense; fat Comp tewa

tewas col tewesyn sand (material)

tewel be silent Imperative taw with internal object min, tavas

teweth See enawel

tew’hethicken; fatten; grow fat

tewl adj dark Comp tewla

tewlder darkness



tewolgow pl dark[ness]

text m textow text (all senses)

textya text

teyl manure; compost

teylu m teyluyow family

teythiak adj native; innate, inherent; idiomatic (speech)

teythy col attributes, abilities, character See also heb teythy specyal, meur y deythy

thêma m thêmaow theme

tia (lia) swear (oath) Verbal adj tës

tiak m tiogow farmer

tîger m tîgras tiger

tin f tinyon tail-end; bottom, arse

tip m tîpow type

tîpek adj typical

tir m tiryow land

tira land

tireth territory; terrain

tirwelm tirwelyow ‖ landscape

tîtel m tîtlys title

to m tohow roof

tobackô See backa

tobm adj hot, warm Comp tobma

tobma heat Note idiomatic dowr tobmys = hot water

tobmans cresednek central heating

tobmer m tomeryow heater, radiator

TODN abbr (= Testscrif ‖ Ollkemmyn [an Dyscans Nessa]) TODNow GCSE (examination, qualification)

todn f todnow wave

todnek adj wavy; choppy (water); undulating

tôkyn m tôknys token; ticket

tôkyn mos ha dewheles m tôknys return ticket

tôkyn mos only m tôknys single ticket

tôkyn stag See lâbel

tôkynva f tôkynvaow ticket office; box office

toll m tell hole

toll f tollow tax

toll aneth council tax

toll daswerth VAT

toll ertans inheritance tax

toll negys business rates

toll wober income tax

Tollva an Wlas HM Revenue and Customs

tomder heat, warmth; temperature

ton m tonyow tone; tune; accent (manner of speech)

tona m tonys ton

tonya tune

toos dough; paste

toos (glus) dens toothpaste

top m topyow top (incl clothing)

torchen f torchednow torch

torment (tormont) m tormentys torment, torture

tormentya (tormontya) torment, torture

tormont See torment

tormontya See tormentya

torn m tornow turn[ing] (all senses); shift (work); time (occasion) See also an eyl torn ... ha tres aral, i’n tor’-ma, i’n tor’-na, peswar torn, pùb wàr y dorn

torn dâ m tornow favour, good turn

torr f torrow belly, tummy, abdomen

torrak (brassys, gans flogh) adj pregnant

torrva break; breach (law, contract); breakdown (car etc)

torrva gorhal (lester) shipwreck

torrva lester See torrva gorhal

torrva tredan power cut

torth f torthow loaf

torthen f torthednow bun

tosa knead; massage

toth speed

toth men phr quickly (emphatic)

toul m toulys tool

tour m tourow tower

touryst m tourystyon tourist

tourystieth tourism

towal m towellow towel

towan m tewednow dune

towl m towlow throw; plan

tôwladow adj disposable

towlcostm towlcostys (towlcostow) ‖ estimate (of cost)

towledna plan, schedule; program

towlednans planning

tôwlel throw Pret tôwlys or towlas

tôwlel golok wàr2 phr glance at

tôwlel towl phr make a plan

towlen f towlednow scheme; schedule; program[me] (all senses)

tra taclow (taclenow) thing Singular is old neuter noun: treat as feminine for use with adjective and numeral udn but treat as masculine for pronoun reference and for use with numerals dew, try, peswar

tradycyon m tradycyons tradition

tradycyonal (hengovek) adj traditional As attributive adj tradycyonal precedes or follows its noun

trailva f trailvaow transition; swing (opinion, voting)

trailya turn; (dhe2) translate (into)

trailya dhyworth phr distract from

trailyans m trailyansow translation

train m trainys (trainow) train

traita (betraya) betray

traitour m traitours traitor

trajedy m trajedys tragedy

tràm m tramyow tram

trank heb worfen eternity

trap (camva) m trappys stile

trauma m traumata trauma

traweythyow (pàr termyn) adv sometimes, from time to time

tre f trevow town; home (in fixed phrases) Also used as adj home Also used as adv (alternative dhe dre) home motion, back (returning) Note also phrase in tre = at home

trebeth m trebedhow tripod; easel, flipchart

trebuchya stumble, trip

tredan electricity

tredanek adj electric[al]

trega (triga) See bos tregys in

tregeredhow pl odds-and-ends

tregh mv trehow slice

treghvil m treghvilas ‖ insect

trehor m trehoryon tailor

trehy cut, slice Pret trohas Imperative trogh

trelew See boll

trembla See crena

tremena [dre2, dres] pass Note tremenys = deceased

tremencubmyasm tremencumyasow ‖ passport

tremenva f tremenvaow passage, corridor, aisle

tremenyas m tremenysy passenger; passer-by

tremlywm tremlywyow ‖ make-up

tremyn look, expression (on face); aspect

treneyja (terneyja) flutter

trenk (trynk) adj sour Comp trenca

trenken (acyd) f trenkednow acid

trenkles ‖ (tavol Tùrky) rhubarb

tresoror See alwhedhor

tresour m tresours treasure

trespasseth crime (generally)

trest *trust

trestya (trystya) [dhe2] trust

treth ferry (crossing)

treth m trethow beach (sand)

treus adj/adv bolshy; perverse (sth); askew

treuscorra ‖ transmit

treusfurvyor ‖ m treusfurvyoryon ‖ transformer (electricity)

treusgwyscor ‖ m treusgwyscoryon ‖ cross-dresser, transvestite

treusperthy ‖ transfer Pret treusporthas or treusperthas

treusreydhak ‖ adj/m treusreydhogyon ‖ transgender

treusva f treusvaow crossing (level, zebra etc)

treuthow See troosow

trevas f trevasow harvest; vintage (wine)

treveglosf treveglosyow ‖ churchtown, village

trevesygeth f trevesygethow settlement; colony

treveth m & f time (occasion) Note masculine in an treveth-ma / -na = this / that time

trevna (orna) v organize, arrange

trevnans organization (abstract), arrangement

trewa spit (saliva)

tria try (sth)

trial m trials trial (judicial)

trielyn (tryhorn) m trielydnow triangle

triga See trega

trigva f trigvaow dwelling; address

trist adj sad Comp trista

tristans sorrow

tro f troyow turn (all senses); time (occasion); round (drinks) Note idiomatic dro-ma = this time See also adre dro, rag tro

tro ha (wor’tu ha, tu ha) prep toward[s]

tro i’n dre / pow f troyow excursion

tro kerdhes f troyow stroll

troaskelf troeskelly ‖ helicopter

trobel m troblys trouble, bother

trobla (tropla) trouble, bother; haunt (ghost)

trockya (troghya) dip (into liquid)

trockya treys phr paddle

trog m trogow box (deep); boot (car)

trog dyllas m trogow suitcase

trog tedna m trogow drawer

trogentrel See dyvîcyor

trogh adj/m trohow (treghyon) cracked, broken; cut (incl meat); segment; track (music)

troghya See trockya

tròm-1(2) pref sudden; pop-up (event); walk-in (service)

tron snout; trunk (elephant); nozzle

troos f treys foot; leg (of object); pedestal

troos'hësfoot (length)

troosow (treuthow) m & pl threshold 

troosvedhekm troosvedhygyon ‖ chiropodist

tropla See trobla

tros (noys) noise (loud) See also meur y dros

trosel f trosellow pedal

trosella pedal

trouvya (trôvya) find, discover (especially after search)

trouvyans (trôvyans) find. discovery

trôvya See trouvya

trôvyans See trouvyans

troyll f troyllyow spin, whirl; twist, twirl, spiral, helix

troyllya spin, whirl; twist, twirl, spiral

truan adj poor, miserable (objectively)

trufyl adj/m truflys trifling; trifle (trifling thing)

trûlergh m trûlerhow [foot]path

trumach plesour cruise

trùmp m trùmpys trump

trùssa pack

trustrum bait

trùth m trùthas trout

tryg See mordryg

tryger m trygers trigger

tryhorn See trielyn

trynk See trenk

trystya See trestya

tu m tuyow side Note construction a’n tu-ma / tu-na dhe2 = on this / that side of See also wàr an eyl tu ... wàr y gela, wàr an tu aral, wor’tu ha

tu arâg front (of sth)

tu ha See wor'tu ha

tu warlergh back (of sth)

tùch quant a little (space or time) Note phrases kemeres tùch coffy = take a coffee break, kemeres tùch cygaryk = take a break for a cigarette, kemeres tùch tê = take a tea break

tùchya touch (lightly, often figuratively); tap (card, device); affect, concern See also ow tùchya

tùchyng See ow tùchya

tùll deceit; disappointment

tùlla deceive Note construction tùlla govenek nebonen = disappoint sb

tùllwyskm tùllwyscow ‖ disguise

tùlyfant m tùlyfans turban

tûna m tûnas tuna

tùrky See yar Gyny

turont m turons tyrant; dictator

turontieth tyranny; dictatorship

turya delve; rummage

tus See den See also dhyrag tus

tus dâ pl in-laws

tyby (teby) think (have ideas or opinions) Present-future tÿb Pret tybys

tybyans m tybyansow idea; opinion

tyckly adj sensitive, delicate, awkward (sth)

tycky Duw m tycky Duwas butterfly

tydn adj tight; taut; shrill; painful; stressful Comp tydna (tydnha)

tydnyow pl tights

tygen f tygednow handbag; wallet

tylda See tent

tyller (teller) m tyleryow place, location; room (space)

tyly pay (what is due) Pret formed with gwil Note constructions y tal(via) + verb-noun = it is / will be / was worth (doing sth), ev a dal(via) / y tal(via) dhodho + verb-noun = he ought to (have), he should (have)

tynder an mis PMT

tysk (dornas) m & f tyscow handful; bunch (flowers)

tythus adj sparkling, fizzy (drink)



udnya unify, unite Note construction udnya gans = join (sb, sth) See also an Kenedhlow Udnys

udnyans See an Udnyans Ewrôpek

udnyk adj sole, only; unique; singular

ufern m ufernyow ankle

ughboyntm ughboyntys ‖ maximum

ughboyntekadj maximum

uhel adj high; tall (sth); loud Comp uhella (uhelha)

uhelder height; volume (sound)

uheldirm uheldiryow ‖ high ground

uhelwhansm uhelwhansow ‖ ambition

uhelwhansekadj ambitious

uj m ujow scream, wail

uja scream, wail

ûla m ûlys owl

ùncoth (ancoth) adj unknown, unfamiliar, strange

ùnderstandya See ùnderstondya

ùnderstandyng See ùnderstondyng

ùnderstondya (ûnderstandya) understand

ùnderstondyng (ûnderstandyng) understanding

ùnlafyl (anlafyl) adj unlawful, illegal

ùnpossybyl adj impossible

unsys m unsysow unity; unit, module

unweyth arta phr [once] again, once more

unverethcohesion, solidarity (spirit, outlook, opinion)

unverhësadj unanimous

unwoos adj related (by blood); cognate (words)

ûnyvers m ûnyversow universe

ûnyversyta (penscol ‖) f ûnyversytas university

ura lubricate Note construction ura bara gans neppëth = spread sth on bread

uras m urasow lubricant

ûsadow custom, habit

uskys adj fast, quick, rapid Comp uskyssa or moy uskys

uskys'hespeed [up], accelerate

ûsya use Note ûsys = usual Note also construction ev a wrug ûsya gwil neppëth = he used to do sth

ûsys ha deu phr worn out (sth)

uthyk adj terrible, dreadful, awful

uvel adj humble, modest

ùy See oy


valew value, worth

valy m valys valley

vanyla vanilla

vanyshya vanish, disappear

varya vary Note varys = delirious; deranged

vas adj fixed 2nd state good, useful, advantageous, effective

velvet See paly

venjans (dial) revenge

verb m verbow verb

versyon (gwersyon) m versyons version

very adj/adv actual; very As attributive adj very precedes its noun

veyl m veylys veil

viaj m viajys journey, trip

viaj jorna m viajys day trip

viajya travel

VID-posytyf adj HIV positive

vil adj vile

vîrek adj viral (all senses)

vîrùs m vîrùssow virus (all senses)

vîsa m vîsas visa

vogalen f vogalednow vowel

vôta (raglef) m vôtys vote

vôtya (ragleva) vote

vowa See avowa

voward front[line] (military, incl figuratively)

voydya See avoydya

voys See lev

vu m vuys view See also dhe’n kensa vu

vyctory m vyctorys victory

vyctym (a2) vyctymys victim (of)

vydeô (gwydhyow) adj/m vydeôs video

vysach See fâss

vysour m vysours mask, visor

vysyt m vysytys visit

vysytya visit

vytel col food (on table)


walkya See kerdhes

war adj wary, cautious

wàr an dyweth phr finally, eventually, at last

wàr an eyl tenewen ... wàr y gela See wàr an eyl tu ... wàr y gela

wàr an eyl tu (tenewen) ... wàr y gela phr on the one hand ... on the other hand

wàr an tenewen aral See wàr an tu aral

wàr an tu (tenewen) aral phr on the other hand

wàr dhelergh phr back[wards] motion

wàr dûta phr on duty

wàr gàm phr steadily, carefully

wàr jy See ajy

wàr lînen phr on-line

wàr nans (in nans) phr down motion

wàr neb cor phr at all with express negative

wàr neb tro See nepprës

wàr nùk See dystowgh

wàr rag See in rag

wàr stray phr lost

wàr udn labm See in udn labm

wàr vàn See avàn

wàr verr lavarow phr briefly, concisely

wàr ves See avês

wàr woles See awoles

warbarth adv together

warbydn an howl See gans / warbydn an howl

warleny adv last year

warrantus adj authentic

warrantya guarantee

wast waist

wèl interj well

welcùbma See wolcùbma

welcùm See wolcùm

weryson See reward

west adj/m west(ern)

whans (a2) *desire, *wish

whansa desire, wish Verbal adj whensys Note construction bos whensys dhe + verb-noun = wish to, want to, be inclined to See also whensys dhe wodhvos

whar adj gentle; humane Comp wharra (wharha)

wharê adv presently



wharth laugh[ter]

wharthus adj comic, funny; ridiculous

wharvedhyans m wharvedhyansow occurrence, event

wharvos (darvos) happen, occur Fut whyrvyth Pret wharva Conditional wharvia Verbal adj wharvedhys or wherys

what m whattys slap; pat (on back etc)

whath (stella) adv still, yet See also na whath

whecter sweetness; pleasantness

whedh m whedhow swelling

whedhel m whedhlow story, tale; rumour

whedhy swell Pret whedhas

wheg adj sweet; pleasant; dear (in salutation) Comp whecka

wheg ha wherow phr sweet and sour

whegednow See whegydnow

wheger See dama dhâ


whegydnow (whegednow) pl sweets

whej vomit, sick

wheja vomit, be sick

whel m & f whelyow work (on-going); mine working Note phrase whel dhe wil = work, job

whelas (whilas) seek, look for Imperative whela Note construction whelas gwil neppëth = try to do sth

whêldrof whêldroyow ‖ revolution (political etc)

whensys dhe wodhvos phr curious, inquisitive

wherow adj bitter Comp wherwha

wherthyn laugh

whës sweat, perspiration

whesa sweat, perspire

wheth air m whethow draught

whetha blow; exaggerate

whethfy (hothfy) inflate (balloon etc); amplify (sound) Pret whethfas

whethfyans inflation

Whevrel See mis Whevrel

whilas See whelas

whiogen (hogen, fùgen) f whiogednow pastry (baked cake, pie)

whor f wheryth sister

whyb m whybow whistle (for blowing)

whyban whistle (sound)

whybana whistle

whydn col whadnen fleas

whyl m whylas beetle

whyl tan moped Literally ‘firefly’

whystra whisper

whystrans m whystransow whisper

whytel (scoodhlen) m whytlow shawl

whythra [orth] inspect; explore, investigate, research

whythrans inspection; exploration, investigation, research

woja See wosa

wolcùbma (welcùbma) welcome

wolcùm (welcùm) adj/m welcome Comp wolcùbma

wordhy adj (a2 + noun, dhe2 / rag + verb-noun) worthy, deserving (of)

wor’taswerth phr second-hand

worteweth See wosteweth

wor’tu ha See tro ha

wosa (woja) prep + noun, non-personal pron, verb-noun, infinitive construction after See also a’y wosa

wosa pùptraphr after all

wostallath adv to begin with, at first

wosteweth (worteweth) adv in the end, ultimately

wrappya See mailya


yagh adj healthy (sb and figuratively) Comp yaha

yaghheheal, cure (sb)

yahus adj healthy (sth), therapeutic

yar f yer hen

yar Gyny (tùrky) turkey

Yêdhow m Yêdhewon Jew

yêhes health

yet m yettys gate

yêth f yêthow language

Yêth an Weryn Yeth an Werin (Cornish conversation group)

yêth plain See pros

yêwnadow craving, yearning

yêwny [rag] crave, yearn for Pret yêwnys

yêyn adj cold Comp yêyna (yêynha)

yêynder cold(ness), chill

yêyner m yêyneryow refrigerator, fridge

yn fen adv vigorously

yn medh, yn medhaf, yn medhans See Key Verb Tables

yn scon See scon

yn tefry See defry

yn tâ See 

yogùrt yoghurt

yonk adj young Comp yonca

yos kergh porridge

Yow See de Yow

yowynkneth youth

ÿs du See lus

ÿs wheg col ÿsen maize, sweetcorn

ÿst adj/m east(ern)


zyp (kevren vew) m zyppys zip